Main : fernando garcía-dory
No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Zurian Section IV. However, it has not been a linear progress, and has never been free from severe difficulties, like many other challenges that Spanish women have had to overcome in this crucial period of history that goes from the nineteenth to the twentieth century.
They also suffered from a social structure that pushed them into domestic work, and, moreover, an education system that kept them from obtaining any sort of professional qualification. The pedagogy conferences celebrated in Madrid in and are good examples. They held the position that hypothetical economic independence of labour should not lead them to renounce their natural priority: motherhood.
A desire to improve their education and training as well as to obtain professional qualifications spread through all Spain. In the late nineteenth century, thirty young women from an educated upper-class background enrolled in university degrees for the first time. Medicine, pharmacy, law, philosophy and humanities were the most popular choices.
With the royal decree of 11 June , women were officially given the right to attend universities as private students, if a higher authority let them do so. On 8 March the royal decree of the Ministry of Public Instruction repealed this law, allowing women to sign up for university courses with no previous permission required. From this date onwards, the number of women at university lectures soared exponentially, as the official statistics show.
While in there were 5, women studying at the university, by this number had risen to 37, The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War abruptly interrupted this emancipatory process and many women encountered great difficulties in continuing their studies once the dictatorship started. During the first years of this period, the presence of women at universities was a mere anecdote; the gender policies implemented by the dictatorship were aimed at confining women to the domestic space.
The law did not explicitly prohibit the access of women to higher education, but there were a series of measures that made enrolment virtually impossible. The educational standpoint was highly sexist at the time, with courses designed for women that included domestic education and home economics. For some, university was not necessarily a means of obtaining an academic qualification or economic independence: it was indeed a way of gaining a qualification and in doing so paving the way for their incorporation into political activism.
According to the National Institute of Statistics, in , , young women were in possession of a university degree, whereas ten years later, in , that number had boosted to , This rise has steadily continued until the present day. In the twenty-first century, most university students are women. In the university realm, it establishes that universities must have special centres for gender equality to carry out those tasks. And one of the main objectives of a twenty-first- century university that embraces academic excellence is undoubtedly that of implementing gender equality at all stages of higher education.
After more than forty years of a National-Catholic dictatorship, the struggle of women became one of the key aspects of the Transition, and its prominent role was obvious in the controversial passing of laws allowing divorce and abortion. During the dictatorship many women were able to develop successful careers in many different fields, including journalism, literature and the arts.
But they were rare examples of professionals overcoming great obstacles and in many cases helped by favourable economic conditions. In democracy these isolated cases began to multiply, as women in general were progressing in a fast-changing Spanish society. A new gaze took shape through the work of female directors and screenwriters of film and television. For the first time, they were in the position of telling their own stories. The purpose of this book is to contribute to the history of women in Spanish media, focusing on the work of some well-known names, but also rescuing from oblivion others now forgotten.
All these women paved the way for those who are still fighting for real gender equality both in the field of media creation and in life. Women Pioneers during the Dictatorship After the end of the Civil War in , a dictatorial regime was established, ruling the country with support from the Catholic Church until the death of General Francisco Franco in In this period, the legal progress achieved by women during the Second Republic, including the right to vote, was derogated.
Quality of the degree
In cinema this new state of affairs caused a virtual absence in creative positions. In their comprehensive overview of screenwriters in Spanish cinema, film historians Esteve Riambau and Casimiro Torreiro found it difficult to review even a dozen names of women who were constantly active during the period. It comes as no surprise that many of them began their careers after the end of the dictatorship. The Second Republic period seemed a promise broken by the triumph of fascism. Riambau and Torreiro , consider Rosario Pi Bruges, an actress turned producer, director and screenwriter, to be the first female Spanish filmmaker.
Born in , Rosario Pi was one of the shareholders of the production company Star Films, which financed feature films by Benito Perojo and Edgar Neville. When she returned from Italy a few years later, she was unable to resume her career as a director and quit filmmaking. But Rosario Pi was not alone in her cinematic dreams. And Margarita Aleixandre worked as a producer both in Spain and in Cuba, and was the co-director of the films Cristo and La ciudad perdida Ana Mariscal was the first female director to have a consistent filmography in Spanish cinema.
During the early years, no women assumed creative positions, and their work was limited to hosting programmes. At first she was the hostess of several programmes, but gradually she started to assume tasks related to screenwriting and production. During the late s, she was the first woman to perform executive duties on Spanish TV as coordinator of programming. But the list of television female pioneers includes more names. Only one woman was able to write a full series during the period of the dictatorship: the playwright Ana Diosdado with the romantic comedy Juan y Manuela in Also, during this period an increasingly significant number of women joined the news division.
Within just a few years, they were no longer the exception. Despite their different backgrounds and interests, television was a vital opportunity for both of them to grow as filmmakers. Undoubtedly, both were leading exponents of the profound social changes that Spain would experience since the s, when they took their first steps in an almost all-male directing staff.
But they were not in the same professional situation. Her desire to join the nascent medium had been so great that she used connections among family and friends to get a job interview. She was hired for the news division, where she edited texts and slowly began to gain more responsibilities as assistant director and floor manager. But she ran into considerable difficulty, as women were banned in the control room for fear that they would distract staff members.
She decided to enrol in the Official School of Cinema to get additional training, but work schedules prevented her from taking the high- committing directing degree, so she chose screenwriting instead. Years later Josefina Molina would become the first female to graduate in directing from the school. Although being reduced to work in programmes aimed at a female audience might seem uninspiring, both took the opportunity to carve out a niche in a masculine environment.
Soon after, their professional paths began to diverge. Her debut series was Lili, based on a story by Paul Gallicet that deals with a young orphan trapped in a love triangle. Meanwhile, Josefina Molina worked most of the time in the more culturally oriented second channel, where the graduates of the Official School of Cinema were thriving. Her first success was the controversial El crimen de Cuenca , a historical film, written by Lola Salvador, about two farmers tortured and imprisoned for a non-existent crime, the murder of another farmer who years later was found to be alive.
The latter, adapted from a play by Lope de Vega, defied expectations and became the biggest commercial and critical success of her career. She was in a moment of great professional recognition when she died in due to a massive heart attack. During this period, Molina had already filmed one of her most important works in television with the adaptation of El camino, a novel by Miguel Delibes for Novela. Retired since the late s, in Josefina Molina received the Goya of Honour from the Motion Picture Academy of Spain, becoming the first female non-actress to obtain this career recognition since the founding of the Academy.
For the presentation of financial statements and their respective notes are made in thousands of Colombian pesos. The difference in exchange rate generated by accounts payable and obligations in foreign currency required for the acquisition of property and equipment is capitalized until the asset is in a state of disposition or use. All other profits and losses in exchange-rate are included in the results from the period. Accounting System - The accounting system of the Foundation is causal-based, according to which the income and expenses are recorded as they occur, regardless of whether or not cash has changed hands.
Donations are recorded against income for the period to the extent in which they are received, except those securities, values or goods received for a specific purpose. Sin embargo, de los casi 37 millones de infectados que hay en el mundo, apenas la mitad tienen acceso a esos medicamentos. Translation - English Even closer to an effective vaccine against HIV Considered a breakthrough by researchers, this advance has been produced by changing the immunisation method of a promising prototype. The first vaccine will be ready sometime in Lately, thanks mainly to the improvement of antiretroviral drugs, AIDS is no longer at the forefront of public opinion.
Nowadays, it is usually considered a chronic disease, not a deadly one only manageable with the appropriate treatment. However, of the almost 37 million infected people in the world, barely half have access to these medicines. The creation of an effective vaccine against the human immunodeficiency virus HIV remains a priority. Their work is based on the development of an artificial protein that emulates the spike proteins that cover the surface of the virus, technically known as envelope trimers. But the substance under study - baptized SOSIP by scientists - did not produce the expected response in the first experiments conducted with rhesus macaques, whose immune system resembles that of humans.
Fortunately, this changed when TSRI and LJI experts modified the method of vaccine immunisation: instead of the intramuscular route more conventional , they used subcutaneous administration. In addition, they spaced the injections 8 weeks apart, instead of the usual weeks. Using this system, the creation of antibodies to neutralize HIV increased significantly in the organisms of test animals. Scientists believe that the first prototype vaccine to be tested on humans will be ready as early as Ha llegado el momento en que los argentinos nos dejemos de mirar como enemigos para empezar a mirarnos como verdaderos hermanos ante Dios, ante la Patria y ante este glorioso pueblo.
En fin, trabajar incansablemente por aquellos que tienen hambre y sed de justicia en nuestra Patria. Trabajar para que nuevamente un canto de felicidad celebre a lo largo y ancho de nuestro inmenso territorio. Argentina pasa por la peor crisis de su historia. La Argentina no se merece este presente; la Argentina se merece un futuro de felicidad y de gloria. Le pido a Dios que bendiga este maravilloso pueblo, que bendiga a quienes el pueblo ha elegido el 14 de mayo, para que todos juntos marchemos hacia el destino de grandeza que se merece nuestra Patria.
Por Dios, levantemos nuestros brazos, aunemos nuestros corazones y nuestras voluntades; la Patria nos espera, el futuro nos espera. Hermanas y hermanos, por la Patria, por el pueblo, arriba nuestros corazones. Hagamos flamear todas las banderas, la bandera de la Argentina, la bandera de la fe que es la bandera de Dios, la bandera de la esperanza que es la bandera del pueblo.
Por Dios, todos juntos hacia el triunfo final, que Dios los bendiga.
Muchas gracias. Translation - English My fellow Argentines, brothers and sisters and of my homeland, distinguished brothers and sisters from Latin America and from around the world, beloved children: today is a day of fundamental importance for the fate and future of the Republic of Argentina. On this day, we have strengthened democracy and freedom, so hard won throughout long years of struggle. We have brought something new to national political life and my hope is that it will spread throughout Latin America. Leaders who come from the people must stay together with the people and work only for the people.
And let me make a brief but important, transcendent and meaningful reference to my own life. This morning, I said when I swore an oath before the Honorable Legislative Assembly that the time has come for bringing together all Argentines and all those who live in this blessed land.
The time has come for we Argentines to stop looking at each other as enemies and start looking at each other as true brothers and sisters before God Almighty, before our homeland and before our glorious people. On this day of celebration and on the eve of one of the most important days in the historic achievements of our beloved homeland, I wanted to tell you of my unswerving resolve to work tirelessly for the greatness of our homeland, for the happiness of our people, for national unity, for Latin American union.
In short, to work indefatigably for those who hunger and thirst for justice in our homeland. Work, so that once again a song of happiness can be heard along the length and breadth of our vast territory. The mandate of the General was to bring up-to-date our doctrine, our principles, starting with our ideology; that is, to give Argentina its rightful place within the context of all nations of the world stemming from a nation united under God.
This is the mandate of history, this is the mandate of those who made our homeland; this is the mandate of those whom I have mentioned in all my addresses: it is the mandate of poor children who go hungry; it is the mandate of rich children who live in sadness; it is the mandate of our brothers and sisters without work, and without a home, of the table without bread. It is, in short, the mandate of the Republic of Argentina that calls on us to come together and challenges us to give it back the rightful place it deserves in the context of the nations of the world.
When I ask you to follow me, I ask you to come with me so that together, we can all make our country the kind of place that deserves to be lived in. I am no magician, nor am I a wizard, I am no miracle worker; alone, I can do nothing, but with your help, we will do so much for our people, for our Argentina. Argentina is going through the worst crisis in its history.
Everyone knows this, there is no need for me to go on and on about an endless series of statistics and past events that have brought us to this situation. It is not possible that in this beloved land of ours where we have food, raw materials, energy resources, human resources, that social inequality has grown and where close to eight and a half million Argentines live in atrocious conditions. We have to do the impossible so that, starting from government action that enables growth and the liberation of these resources, we can create wealth and distribute it with a true sense of social justice.
Enough is enough for those who must work every single day living in dire need, and where those who do nothing, live high on the hog. Sisters and brothers, my fellow argentines, beloved children: we could carry on all day talking about other things. I know that you have been here since early this morning, in this glorious Plaza de Mayo, our plaza of the Republic and the people. I just want to ask you not to give up, hard times are coming, but it is in these approaching hard times where we are going to sow the seeds of recovery so that, shortly afterwards, we can reap the fruits of our labour.
We cannot go on like this. Argentina does not deserve this current plight in which it finds itself; Argentina deserves a future of happiness and glory. First Argentina, first our homeland, then our people, for Lord God Almighty, and finally, men. Our leaders have to understand that they must put themselves on the line for national unity, for the sacred interests of the Republic of Argentina, and for Latin America.
Los Hermanos Siameses (Coleccion Timomel [I.E. Timonel]) (Spanish Edition)
Finally, I ask Lord God Almighty, the font of all reason and justice, to be with us in this true task and in this particular challenge that destiny has put before us. I ask our Lord to bless these wonderful people, bless those whom the people have chosen on the fourteenth of May, so that together we can march towards the destiny of greatness that our country deserves. For the Lord God Almighty, let us raise our hands in celebration, let us anoint our hearts and our wills; the country awaits us, the future awaits us. Menem is here to work with you, together with my friend and colleague Duhalde, and bring a little more happiness to the people of our homeland.
By God, let all of us, as one, march towards our final triumph. May God bless you all! Thank you. A driver took off after causing an accident in which a cyclist was injured. It happened in the district of Oia, in the province of Pontevedra, Galicia, on the 8th of January at noon, when the driver decided to make an unnecessary change of direction at the very moment the group of 6 Gondomar Club cyclists were passing by the side of him. One of the members of the peloton fell to the ground after breaking suddenly on being surprised by the vehicle.
The driver, far from stopping and seeing to the injured man, continued on his way after lighting up a cigarette and making a rude gesture to the rest of the cyclists. The images were captured by the helmet cam of one of the group. The video of the incident has gone viral on social media, getting thousands of hits in just a few hours. The area where the incident took place is a well-known accident black spot, especially when it comes to being run over, which is what happened to 4 other cyclists just a few days earlier. Dicho en otras palabras, Portugal.
Sin embargo, debes dejar pasar algo de tiempo. Nunca le mientas. Si no lo hace, no es la persona adecuada. Translation - English Ten top tips to maintaining your long-distance relationship Technically speaking, all relationships are at a distance, but some have a bit more distance than others. In other words, Wales. This prevents your partner from receiving oral sex while chatting with you without you noticing.
However, you should let some time go by. If you turn up in Sydney three hours after your partner has arrived, it can produce the opposite effect to the one desired. Never lie to your partner. In this way, trust will remain intact. Hago las reservas y advertencias legales y fiscales. Enterados de su contenido, lo ratifican y firman conmigo. I identify them by their respective identity documents that they have shown me, as a supplementary measure established in article 23, section c of the Law on Notarial Acts, whose photographs and signatures agree with those of the parties appearing.
II — They have shown me the Notary the said agreement, signed and subscribed to by both parties, which they have ratified in my presence. Its purpose is to formalise this document, its billing and subsequent monitoring and proper functions of the notarial activity. The parties are informed that they may exercise their rights of access, cancellation and opposition. Having read this public instrument to the parties, previously advised of their right to do it for themselves, according to Article of the Notarial Regulations, to which they have waived this right.
Aware of its contents, they have ratified it and have signed it in my presence. And I the notary, from the identity of the grantors, that in my opinion have the capacity and legitimacy, that consent has been freely given and that the granting is in legal accordance with the properly informed will of the grantors or those appearing, and of all the provisions set out in this public instrument remains spread on three stamped pages of exclusive paper for notarial documents, DS series numbers , and , to which I do hereby attest.
Here are the signatures of those parties appearing. Here is the seal of the Notary. Nicolescu, L. Carrizo y J. Sotolongo y C. Jantsch, A. Lichnerowicz y J. Piaget en el taller internacional "Interdisciplinarity -Teaching and Research Problems in Universities". En el mundo complejo, las soluciones aparentemente eficaces pueden convertirse en lo contrario.
Hurtado y M. Orienta y demanda de cada quien investigador, educador o educando rigor, apertura y tolerancia. Volume I Transdisciplinarity: Engaging with Complexity One of global society's most significant challenges is overcoming a strategy of fragmentation, parcelled vision, and decontextualized action, which is foundational to the current environmental, scientific-technological and economic, political, social and cultural crossroads. It is impossible to confront this fundamental challenge without reinventing the universal form of transformative human action known as education.
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Education must be reinvented on a transdisciplinary and complex foundation to prepare human beings to live in the present socio-natural environment, characterized by three interrelated contexts, in which changes that impact and will impact human life occur: 1 The scientific context of theoretical-epistemological and methodological advances, which includes results from transdisciplinary research; 2 The economic, political, social and cultural crossroads context of the crisis of humanity; 3 The metatechnological context.
Transdisciplinary Research B. Carrizo and JT Klein have emphasised the new vision of the world that transdisciplinarity represents: the need to take into account the concordance of interpretations with value systems and research methodology. Morin has highlighted the omnipresence of the simplification that is typical of the "great paradigm of the West" , a cultural result of Westernisation. Sotolongo and CJ Delgado locate transdisciplinarity and complexity as part of the "contemporary revolution of knowledge".
Nicolescu traces the origins of the transdiscipline concept to educational debates in between E. Lichnerowicz and J. Piaget in the international workshop "Interdisciplinarity -Teaching and Research Problems in Universities". The concept of transdiscipline in Piaget as a superior form of interdisciplinarity and a new field of knowledge initiates a thread that was consolidated in the s with the first conference on transdisciplinarity and The Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity. Two ideas stand out in this conceptual elaboration: 1 trans is interpreted as an investigative journey "between", "through", and "beyond" disciplines; and 2 the link between complexity and transdiscipline is considered unbreakable, because they share the same epistemological foundation.
The first idea leads to the challenge of a radical transdiscipline: the dialogue between forms of knowledge, while the second channels methodological research. Klein has profiled several ways in which the concept of transdiscipline appears in collaborative research groups and their practices throughout the world.
Transdiscipline's impact in research has been broad, both in the search for solutions to problems and in the methodology of the social sciences. Luengo pinpoints the advent of the transdiscipline with methodological dissatisfactions and explorations, the need for interdisciplinary dialogue, and the encounter with complexity through Morin. Several documents resulting from transdisciplinary research have had a significant impact on education.
The report from the Gulbenkian Commission concludes its analysis for the restructuring of the social sciences with 4 recommendations that give rise to hope for possible change in education: all the recommendations focus on research and postgraduate activities, and institutional organizational, structural and curricular change in universities.
The symposium on transdisciplinarity held under the auspices of UNESCO in the late s concentrated on how to cover diverse aspects of reality, increase understanding of global and complex issues, stimulate synergies between disciplines and support cooperation and exchange between experts and different sectors. Since then, a lot of ground has been covered before finally arriving at recently produced political documents that establish a distinctive commitment to complexity and transdisciplinarity as central to the educational agenda.
At this new historical juncture, which coincides with relevant global changes, it is essential to revisit the content that links the recognition of the world's complexity, the need for a non-classical epistemology, and the relevance of transdisciplinary research as a proposal to work with that complexity. Considering complexity and the transdiscipline as a way of organizing knowledge is far from a problem of classification.
It requires revisiting content regarding epistemology and worldview, repositioning it in the foreground in order to be able to face social and educational complexity, rethinking the fundamental epistemological questions of education, and their methodological and pedagogical consequences. Education and the Crisis of Humanity The general perspective offered by the Morinist concepts of "crisis of humanity" and "metamorphosis" frames the need for complexity and transdisciplinarity for changing education.
It is not a need to improve or update education, but to change it so that it meets the social function of preparing human beings to live in a world that is transforming globally, on the edge of an abyss of self-destruction. Education was born out of the intimate connection of breastfeeding mothers and protecting families, and it was universalized through a historical process of estrangement and separation from those origins. For a long time, state institutions have controlled education.
The estrangement today is such, that "education" evokes institutional entities school, institute, university, ministries, etc. In addition, in recent decades, direct economic players, such as the OECD and the World Bank, are among the entities that set out guidelines for change in education, and thus, they have begun to surpass the State in its governing role. The State now begins to resemble an institution subordinate to global entities. But human beings do not cease being biological entities, and advances in neuroscience, cognitive sciences and the understanding of knowledge need to be systematically incorporated into the educational agenda and educational practices.
To open paths up that make inclusion and intraculturalism possible, as was conceived by the Education Relief Foundation as the first pillar of a balanced and inclusive education, fundamental lessons are needed in accordance with the pedagogy of Morin's absences; something which contemporary education lacks. This is discussed in another chapter of this volume.
It also requires the development of a way of thinking that is critical, creative, civic, responsible, and that empowers human beings to learn to live in this new context and change it in ways that benefit human beings and their socio-environmental environment. Changes in the economic, political, social, cultural and metatechnological realms create huge opportunities, which by themselves, are ambivalent and can lead to future uncertainties, accelerating the tendency towards self-destruction.
Human action must direct these changes, and it is necessary to empower human beings by many means, among which education is central. In this complex world, effective solutions can apparently turn into the opposite. For example, change in the consumption model moves us from a model of individual consumption and private property in terms of goods, to a consumption model where common-use goods are shared.
It has already been implemented for several years in means of transportation, such as the bicycle ecological and the automobile, which evidently promote environmental sustainability. But the contrary is demonstrated when considering the existence of gigantic bicycle cemeteries, where millions of bicycles are discarded when they could still be used.
The same could be said with respect to sustainability in general, which continues to be a hegemonic idea for solving the socio-environmental crisis. It constantly moves onward and becomes unattainable in the face of the permanence of economic and population growth.