The analysis of Shakespeare's role in Garcia Lorca's early poetic production has been largely overlooked by academic criticism. While Silvia Adani's book, La presenza di Shakespeare nell'opera di Garcia Lorca , offers an almost exhaustive inventory of Lorca's references to Shakespeare, the author does not engage in analysing or characterising the presence of the English playwright in Lorca's work. Thus, within Lorquian criticism, where Shakespearean drama is only of marginal interest, the few passing allusions to Shakespeare tend to cluster round the visible traces of Shakespearean drama in Lorca's experimental plays such as El publico and Comedia sin titulo, where the explicit theatrical role of Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night's Dream is hardly avoidable Martinez Nadal ; Laffranque ; Huerta Calvo An unknown error has occurred.
Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while. Read preview. Introduction Already in his earliest poems, certain linguistic choices suggest that Garcia Lorca's poetic language was permeated by an early reading of Shakespeare's plays.
Schelling Houghton Mifflin, Read Overview. Read preview Overview. Dessen University of North Carolina Press, Early Theatre, Vol. You know that we have a mural that is, in reality, graffiti, that was restored. The fact that it was restored almost seems like a joke; there was, evidently, some sort of political torsion for restoring one more graffiti, that was nothing more than letters on the wall. Nevertheless, the will was there to pressure the museum to maintain this wall. As a result of this pressure and the intervention of a judge, we are finally.
Above and beyond whether or not I agree—and this is, indeed, the case— with what the graffiti proposes—it speaks of human rights, against the killings that we are all familiar with—the issue was an extraordinary case, because I am certain that if it were an operating room that was under construction, no one would oblige us to put a reproduction of this mural inside.
On the other hand, when I was in Rio, I saw a small chapel; they told me that it was in the midst of an interesting problem, at an interesting critical point. When things reach a point of institutional insanity, due at times to ministers or judges, they tend to take on an interesting character. This situation, which means revising our conceptual zones of tension and being able to think of ourselves as a function of full representation, is the objective of the administration that we have begun. I completely agree with the need to open up the game.
I believe that we have to stop kidding around; we have copied the most frivolous things in the world from the universe of global museologic culture. I celebrate the fact that she is here with us today to present the MuAC, whose opening I was fortunate. Graciela de la Torre: Thank you, Andrea. First reflection. Everything that some museums want to know but are afraid to ask themselves. During the past three decades, the world of visual arts has changed drastically. The discourses, ideas and theories that used to validate production exercise less and less control in determining the value of these objects in the face of an enormously wide range of creative practices, particularly in the case of emerging art.
On the map of current and contemporary art, museums are certainly the most visible institution, the one that elicits the greatest expectations on. For a long time since Modernity, I would say hegemonic museums have been awarded leadership in the world of museums I am referring to European and North American institutions. Today, competition between museums has turned ferocious on a global scale and they are endlessly occupied and preoccupied with gen-. Should museums be centered around orthodoxy, based on the objects and the study, documentation and interpretation of their collections?
Can museums achieve a synthesis between tradition and a communications laboratory? What capabilities should an institution have in order to exercise leadership? In light of the challenges and pressures they are subject to, what are the tools that a museum needs? What are the indicators, as Florencia said, according to which the success of a museum should be measured? Where does a museum insert itself in a society of knowledge? Second reflection. Mexico possesses one of the largest networks of museums in the world over 1, , that protect the mirror patrimony of the long duration and continuity of our culture or that evidence foreign inheritances, guarded within historic constructions or in ex profeso buildings, many of which are first rate.
Distant from and invisible to post-revolutionary discourse, contemporary art has not found its place in public archives, and as such those wishing to get to know our recent visual history have had to approach galleries or private collections. This extraordinary deed in the cultural and university universe is less so in our country, considering that historically, and for the past four centuries, the UNAM has assumed responsibility that would pertain to the Mexican state: the Biblioteca Nacional and the Hemeroteca Nacional, meteorological and astronomical observatories, and oceanographic.
On a patrimonial level, the UNAM conserved the original collection that gave birth to history and archaeological museums and also amassed that which gave rise to art museums. It was necessary to observe the phenomenon from different points of view. On the one hand, from the perspective of university autonomy and interdisciplinarity, but also in light of a complex interaction with the visual arts, without overlooking the flexibility of a mandate where the museum would not form part of the government, but would be part of the Mexican state.
As such, what model of museum and management was desirable, possible and measurable for this new institution? European examples based on an orthodoxy of conservation, study and documentation of their collections did not seem to be well suited to our case, since decision making and financing were closely tied to bureaucracy. As a result, it was clearly anachronistic to look toward post-colonial societies such as our own with the nationalism implicit in its expository discourse and formal education, considered as vehicles for transmitting ideology. As an initial paradigm, we must say that the museological concept for the MuAC was radical: the first thing was to renounce the modernist model learned, grandiloquent, didactic, linear, monolithic, object-centered and, among other things, to take in principles pertaining to a new museology in order to make the community the pampered figure in the new institutional scheme.
Not without a fight, and based on a program of necessities, the conceptual platform for the MuAC projected a paradigm: to displace the hegemony of the object in order to capitalize on the user as the primary element of the. Once these premises had been tempered and the museum opened in image 3 , what the MuAC proposed in physical and conceptual terms had entered an evaluation process. Its architectural, technical and spatial facilities are weighed; its programs and tools for communication and interpretation are examined and adjustments are made; based on qualitative and quantitative indicators, the influx of public, its characteristics and its reception of different activities are examined; the feasibility of incorporating private initiatives is analyzed in terms of co-responsibility for and financing of the institution, among other issues that are investigated.
Even more importantly, inserting the MuAC in a university typology allows it to—or demands, I would say—carry out its proposals within a framework of ongoing experimentation, debate and collegiate critique, in such a way that the museum territory and its working models become an expanded campus image 4. From this point of view, at present the MuAC is responding with five strategic coordinates, each of which gives rise to a particular work model.
One of these is curatorial image 5 , the purpose of which is to favor the generation of aesthetic experiences and to stimulate artistic experimentation, in addition to constructing new platforms for approaching current artistic production and its history based on collegiate criteria.
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There is no permanent exhibition, there are conceptual cycles along three curatorial lines: the collection must. The second coordinate is academic image 6 , focused on managing the collections of artworks and documents in a critical, systematic manner, applying information in a meditated fashion and generating and distributing this knowledge based on solidly founded, collegiate parameters.
The Arkheia project is the mainstay of the academic coordinate, and it deals with seminars, documentation networks and archive funds, publications and critique. The education coordinate image 7 leans toward strategic design and tools and environments implementation for the construction of meaning for viewers, promoting inclusion of a plural public and the development of participative audiences.
The intention of the communications link coordinate image 8 is to stimulate dialogues and to involve both the university community and the external market in participation, based on their interests and needs. The future is here. Its programs and projects should give priority to current artistic creation and the construction of knowledge and significant experience; its actions should incite analog processes between the museum and its public, considered to be participative agents in the institution.
We trust that this new museum has the potential to become a point of reference to activate the visibility and discourse coming from Mexico and Latin America, and, far removed from the box office meter—because I want to mention that it has broken attendance records, so we must dis-. I was named as its director in early I am new to the position, although I am very familiar with the museum on account of the fact that I have been working there as the head of Conservation since , and I have inherited an institution that is living a wonderful moment of its history.
The papeleta ballot slip has now been passed to me, as we say in Spain, and it is my duty to take up this project at quite a highpoint in its process of realization. The MACBA is a national museum of contemporary art in Catalonia, and it has an additional obligation in terms of representation and seeing that the institutions in this context—as well as the Spanish context—dedicated to. We should not forget that Spain is a very young democracy, and its public institutions in different spheres are also very young; among these, the museums, as yet, find themselves constructing public spaces that society will recognize.
As you also know, among the museums and cultural centers that have been inaugurated in Spain during the past twenty years, MACBA is one that has initiated its course already. I would like to invite you to join me on a little journey; I realize that time is short and I will show you some images of the historic nucleus in order to translate some of the goals that we have into images, in the midst of a country where the tradition of modern art and the history of contemporary art are still quite fragile.
In Spain we have one of the most important fine arts museums in the world, the Museo del Prado, but we lack the historiographic capacity or the historians that would put us on a par with the intellectual powers that make their mark on the canons of art history writing. The same thing occurs in the field of contemporary art.
The museum also needs to interact with specialized institutions and organizations in order to carry out its mission; it is not autonomous. I believe that we must begin to think about the educational experience and about transmitting knowledge above and beyond what is entailed by official scholastic conventions. In this sense, MACBA, since it is not a modern art museum—our collection begins around —has the advantage of not having to occupy itself with such a remote past, and it has the disadvantage of not being able to refer back to the genealogy that underlies contemporary artistic conduct.
In the first place, to show what our contemporary classicism consists of based on the ruptures with fine art paradigms that were effected by the avant-garde during the post-war era, and secondly, how successive ruptures and paradigm changes operate to make up what we now call contemporary practices.
In fact, the regimen abhorred abstraction; they had been defending realist art and it began to dawn on them that they might be able to associate themselves with an image of abstraction and Spanish Informalism in order to set out on a course that bring years of autarchy to and end and open the country to the world, allowing for economic development. Blackness was also the aspect that the regimen used to link all this informalist painting that it had earlier abhorred to El Greco. Chillida and Oteiza received important international recognition in and at the Venice and San Pablo biennials, respectively.
However, in , Constant, a Dutch artist affiliated with the Cobra group, stopped painting image 20 to dedicate his efforts instead to constructing a. Constant began to politicize form, and he newly politicized a constructivist tradition that had most likely reached him through Naum Gabo and artists from Russia—who had such a strong influence on Dutch art—to declare that the city was the place of a new world, and that it was possible to live in a new way, based on plea-.
Constant truly believed this; not only did he put images to this city, but he also wrote manifestos, gave conferences and lectured extensively until , when he decided that no one had paid attention to his ideas and he went back to painting. That same year, Hans Haacke created a very, very important work, called Shapolsky et al. The piece was censored by the Guggenheim Museum for reasons that even today have as yet to be explained those formulated by the artist do not coincide with those provided by the museum , but seem to be quite evident to me.
In , Hans Haacke declared that the city was no longer the terrain for a new society based on freedom and pleasure, but rather a theater for real estate speculation and inequality. While Gordon Matta-Clark, who was in the same room, and many others were busy dealing with the urban issue, artists like Lothar Baumgarten fled the city and became interested in nature. Here we see a series of his photographs taken on the savannah and the plateaus between Venezuela and Brazil in and , while he was living with the Yanomani images 22 and Other decisive artists who also fled the city were Robert Smithson, not only in his physical monuments like Spiral Jetty images 24 to 26 , but also in all the literature he has engendered, which I believe constitutes a literary monument in conceptual art, and Lawrence Weiner image During these same years, between the end of the s and the beginning of the s, we have a group of artists who offer us an abstract language that is far removed from informalism and the material abstraction that we saw earlier.
Finally, there is a room dedicated to a relationship that is partly anecdotal and partly essential: that between European Pop Art—in the figure of Richard Hamilton, above all—and a current of Catalonian art from the s I insist that only twenty years come between the first room and the second. Here are works from to , but we think that Richard Hamilton and Lawrence Alloway invented the term Pop Art in , three years after pictorial informalism had hatched.
Hamilton and the members of the Independent Group defended an artistic position that was radically opposed to abstraction: they proposed a return to the real and a very critical perspective of the consumer society that European society had already become after recovering from the post-war period. If we consider that during the s the European economies, those who had suffered the Second World War to the same extent as Iberian countries like Spain and Portugal, still found themselves very battered, but had already immersed themselves in the industrial production of everyday goods.
Printed advertisements and widespread television would be crucial elements to understanding this art. Hamilton goes there to look for Marcel Duchamp, who used to vacation in that small town, and he comes into contact with artists from that generation. These are works by Richard Hamilton and Dieter Roth image 32 that were shown in said gallery on various occasions.
In recent years, we have continued to investigate along these lines and this is beginning to be translated into the collection itself. Andrea Giunta: Thank you all very much.
I would like to point out three ideas that very briefly summarize the contributions to this round table. Secondly, that the transforming role of sensitivity was highlighted; the way in which the museum is a space not only for knowledge, but for transforming sensitivity as well. If public attendance is no longer an indicator, if we are dealing with an arena for producing knowledge, I believe that the great challenge is how to measure whether or not this is taking place. Andrea Giunta: Would you like anyone in particular to answer that, or is it a general question?
Eduardo Rosenberg: Actually, in order to make this clear for the audience, I think it would be appropriate for the Argentinean panelists to reply. However, it seems to me that what you are proposing is very important. This is not a pessimistic response;. Here what is lacking is a critical body of intellectuals and. This is why I brought up the case of the Macro museum, who have carried out policies that are quite respectful, with a will to create links with their field of production even before having patronage laws fully developed.
Julieta Gargiulo: I am in charge of the museum in Mendoza that Guillermo mentioned, which is incorporated into a vineyard, the Museo Killka.
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I am interested in explaining a joint experience that we carried out with the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes that was very interesting. We are kilometers away from Mendoza, between the mountain range and the countryside, and we had a large number of people attend. We want to be a living museum; it is a living museum, and over four thousand students from rural schools throughout the province and the region came to visit us and had the opportunity of seeing this show.
It was so important that to our delight, when the Museo de Bellas Artes de Salta opened, the same exhibition went to that city instead of having the patrimony portion returned for safekeeping. These are experiences that seem to be very enriching, and that imply that we have begun to work very well together across a network of museums. Margarita Paksa: I am a visual artist, and I would like to congratulate Florencia for her initiative, which seems to me to be truly important, in promoting artistic activity, or better yet, the inter-relation with the university; this is fundamental in my view.
Every time that, as an artist, I am invited to different types of universities that touch upon different aspects of art production as design or art history, I see what a profound lack of knowledge there is. Not to mention the Law Faculty, naturally; we seem to be worlds apart; and it goes without saying what happens with the Engineering Faculty. Graciela de la Torre: What a coincidence, because I was just about to give. Florencia an advertisement. For example, in Mexico we are going to initiate a pilot program that will later be expanded throughout Latin America, and would be very pleased to be partnered with you in this.
Through its portfolio, it will provide professionals with opportunities in the area of national and Latin American museums, with the purpose of catalyzing their talent and to take on leadership, offering contemporary management tools. Those who come from the United Sates know what the Getty Leadership Institute is: a program promoting excellence that provides museum decision makers with contemporary tools. So then, the first program that we will undertake is high-level museum directing, just as there is high-level administrative directing, because directors are practically, practically forged in practice itself, this does not come by osmosis.
If the government or the state do not take care of this, then other mechanisms must be sought out, we have to look for who will sponsor and carry out this activity, because we cannot just stand by with our arms crossed. This is just one example. Consider that the museum is very young, not only the MACBA, but the idea of the museum, and there are still universities in Spain that do not educate students with the objective of reaching a museum; there are no specific studies for this.
Professionals who have gone through international schools are beginning to appear, but in general, still, for better or worse, being self-taught allows us to invent our own models instead of obeying systems that have already been created and perfected in other places. On the one hand, this may lead at times to brief moments of creative chaos, but on the other, it gives us great freedom to be able to invent those instruments that are best suited to our needs, or,. We have a lot to learn in Argentina, and I believe that one should aspire to a situation where everyone who works in a museum—including the people who install the shows, who handle the insurance, the legal aspect, everything that is included within these type of institutions—should have a specific preparation.
This is truly a very important issue for the further development of our institutions, and so I definitely share your concern. The truth is that there is an enormous lack of design that exists in relation to museum plans. Paradoxically, it is very rigid as far as how these people who are administering these strange symbolic flows gain access to being in contact with our enormously sacred patrimony.
It is a very complicated territory, because we. Because there are a lot of people who are very saveable, who are worthy and have background formation who are very weighed down with resentment; the textile restorer who has been seeing how gauze reacts to hydrogen peroxide for years needs our support and our help. The problem is that, in Argentina, art institutions have functioned almost as an apparatus for permanent exclusion, above all for the field of artists; not to mention twists like gender, that we are not touching upon here.
If we manage to do that, to think about putting together this possibility for a laboratory-observatory in the medium term, on the opposite side from political terms—which we know often do not represent in any way the body of people who are working in cultural institutions—and if we all want to see that museums function and that our culture functions, that the artists are content, that their production is validated, that it is respected… Then, one possibility is to stop fooling around and look straight in the face in a truly independent and non-alienated way at what it is that is the conflict, what is the stone in our shoe.
Do we have a stone in our shoe? Lots of them. Are there possibilities of taking them out? Is there a willingness to say that there is a stone in the shoe? Diana Wechsler: I am a researcher and I would like to make a small overall comment. I truly celebrate this openness and the proposals coming from directors in general and from the particular museum directors who are here and these invitations to think in a more plural way, and I have a specific question for Graciela de la Torre.
I thought that your approach and the number of questions you raised from a standpoint of a university museum project. The museum has been transformed into an extended campus capable of generating knowledge— not only education—and other communications strategies in addition to a new management model that incorporates society in the maintaining of the institution, which is not all that new, but it used to be contemplated as a cure, to put it one way, almost like a panacea, rather than a fundamental strategic axis. This is on the one hand, and I can tell you in even more complex terms: a management model where hierarchies have been removed, based on a task force, where the director becomes an architect who detects the skills and competence of different teams that do not respond to a hierarchy in order to work project by project.
Han financiado y llenado museos. O han abierto los suyos cuando se sintieron descontentos con las instituciones existentes. En el museo hay, pues, una convergencia de disciplinas, pero sin los roles tradicionales. Barbara Duncan y su esposo, John, son considerados dos de los primeros estadounidenses que coleccionaron arte latinoamericano. La diferencia entre las colecciones iniciales del MoMA y del Blanton es reveladora.
El caso del Phoenix Art Museum ilustra este aspecto. Lo que diferencia a los coleccionistas privados es que no necesariamente deben responder a comunidades, historias o agendas Pueden acumular tanto o tan poco como deseen de cualquier artista de cualquier lugar; y luego pueden venderlo o dejarlo a sus hijos con tanta facilidad como donarlo a un museo. La Bruce T. Halle Family Foundation tiene varios frentes. Fuera del estado en que residen, los Halle han financiado muchas muestras y publicaciones que representaban un aporte dentro del campo del arte latinoamericano.
Andrea Giunta: Muchas gracias, Beverly. Les quiero presentar a Gustavo Bruzzone. Gustavo Bruzzone: Muchas gracias. En ese manifiesto plantean una serie de cuestiones, que son aquellas de las que uno habla permanentemente con otras perso Porque si solamente se limitan a eso y no apoyan a un artista o a los grupos de los cuales forman parte estos artistas, el arte no se va a seguir desarrollando. Entonces, es un error desde ese punto de vista. Es una manera de apoyar. Hagan lo que sea: si son de Chivilcoy, apoyen a los artistas de Chivilcoy; si viven en Trenque Lauquen, lo mismo, y donde fuere.
Lo que tenemos que tratar de hacer desde nuestro lugar es estimular este tipo de cosas. Le estoy robando esta frase a alguien, pero no importa. En cuanto a la responsabilidad social del coleccionista, uno se sorprende un poco de que digan que tenemos tal responsabilidad.
Es un reto; uno pensaba que estaba incorporando a su casa cosas que quedaban bien, y armando una historia, y ahora se trata de la responsabilidad social del coleccionista. Bueno, asumamos esta responsabilidad que nos toca. Las colecciones tienen que ser abiertas; que Costantini, que Fortabat nos hayan regalado museos abiertos donde ponen sus colecciones es algo para aplaudir, y afortunadamente lo tenemos en Buenos Aires. Son cosas buenas. Pero todo esto va mejorando, en el sentido de que se cuidan de una manera tal, cuando las prestamos, que nos las devuelven en el mismo estado que las dejamos, y las obras cada tanto viajan y les hace bien salir a pasear un rato y volver.
Y para los alumnos de la Facultad de Derecho es divertido. Claro, en tiempos de Internet Y alguno que otro va de vez en cuando. Yo lo veo, lo vivo y lo siento de esta manera. Si no, lo tenemos que hacer nosotros, porque hay que asumir, hay que recoger el guante, es una responsabilidad de alguna manera.
Es un municipio enorme, dos veces mayor que el de Belo Horizonte, pero con apenas Andrea Giunta: Gracias, Rodrigo. Bienvenido nuevamente, Gabriel. Arte colonial venezolano. Pero en esta ponencia me voy a concentrar en el programa educativo Piensa en Arte. Para tratar este asunto, el programa se apoya en las ideas socioconstructivistas de pensadores como Paulo Freire, Jerome Bruner Y dejo para el final la Argentina, donde actuamos con Bodegas Chandon para llevar el programa a las provincias de Mendoza y San Juan imagen Muchas gracias a todos. Ahora, museos y colecciones presentan un problema.
En los Estados Unidos ha sido muy diferente la historia del coleccionismo. En fin, son varias observaciones… De eso podemos hablar. Can we speak collecting today in terms of patronage? Four fundamental collections of Latin American and Argentinean art that figure prominently in the public scene will serve as the point of departure for exploring these questions.
Yesterday, we had a truly interesting meeting; we talked about museums and, in this attempt to map out the current situation of Latin American art, I believe that one of the most important issues that came up consisted of the new curatorial proposals put forth by several of the museum directors in terms of renewed agendas, the relationships with research activity and the articulation of curatorial models based on developments in the field of academic research.
In regard to this point, many have mentioned the need to invent models instead of reproducing structures. Today, we will carry this challenge over to the field of collecting. I believe that two powerful changes have occurred in recent years: one of them has been taking place for some time in relation to private collections being opened to form part of the public scene, that is to say, those who collect for their own pleasure have opened their collections, and this. One of the most interesting and most fertile vectors in this development is the extent to which collections are proposing to intervene in the field of knowledge, entering into dialogue with the policies that touch on it, and promoting these policies from the basis of the collection.
I think that. In addition to a long-standing friendship, we are also connected by the fact that she studied at the University of Austin, where I am currently teaching. She was the curator of the Latin American Art Museum in Phoenix and also participated in a book that revised forty years of visual activity at the Americas Society, an institution that has played a central role in New York since the s. She also elaborated the catalog for the exhibition of the Halle Collection at the Museum of Fine Arts, Houston in , and she collaborated on the catalog of an excellent show held recently at the Blanton, The New York Graphic Workshop: , where our well-known artists Liliana Porter and Luis Camnitzer intervened.
She is also one of the editors preparing the collection of Latin American art documents at the Houston Museum. The history and roles private collectors and collections have played in the development of the field of Latin American art in the United States is something I have been interested in for quite a long time academically. But since ,. The distinction between private collectors and public institutions. Given the paucity of research and the short attention spans of many institutions, authority is still, in many instances, up for grabs, and collectors have played central roles in developing the field since the s.
It is no secret that collectors, as patrons, are powerful figures in the world of art. They have funded and filled museums. Or when frustrated with existing institutions, have opened their own. So why is the case with collectors of Latin American art different? There has been an activism, an understandable drive to legitimate the artistic value of art from Latin America within public institutions.
For a long time, the near complete lack of art history departments concerned with modern and contemporary Latin American art in the United States made art museums a central venue for scholarship, criticism and representation. Even today, when Latin American art is one of the most dynamic fields in United States universities, museum catalogues are still where criticism and art history of 20th-century Latin American art is most often published. Thus there is a convergence of disciplines in the museum, but without the traditional roles. The two main public institutions in the United States that have collections of Latin American art have had behind those initiatives a committed collector.
Blanton Museum at the University of Texas at Austin are important examples of the expanded role of the collector, their potential public impact and legacy. The most notorious is, of course, Nelson A. By creating the initiative to buy art based on political rather than aesthetic commitment, Rockefeller shifted the place Latin American art had within the overall institution and created a separate field, and what may have been worse, a separate criterion which has only recently been redirected and reconnected to the overall goals of the institution. The Blanton is also largely the result of a prominent collector, but with a very different purpose.
Barbara Duncan began collecting in the s, while she and her husband were living in Peru. In a traveling exhibition of her collection organized by the Center for Inter-American Relations now the Americas Society image 2 was donated to what was then the Huntington Art Gallery at the University of Texas at Austin. Duncan chose the Museum not only because of the university context, but also because the then director, Donald Goodall, was interested in developing a strong Latin American program.
Duncan continued to give to the museum beyond the initial gift and she also established a lecture endowment and donated her archives to complement the rich holdings at the Benson Latin American library. For Duncan, the task of collecting became synonymous with creating a field of interest and of scholarship, making and legitimizing a place for Latin American art in the United States.
These activities were inextricably linked. It was assembled hastily by a team.
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Neither Rockefeller nor the institution felt any particular commitment to the material acquired, since it was to fulfill a political function more than be integrated into the aesthetic and intellectual goals of the institution. The Inter-American Fund continued to provide for purchases in the region, especially when interest peaked for a moment in the s and then again in the s. Yet without the institutional will, the majority of this material has remained unworked until quite recently.
Though one may or may not agree with the importance of the works Duncan acquired, her collection, with all of its idiosyncrasies, is something that has to be grappled with, seriously engaged by successive curators at the Blanton. Curatorial efforts will always be in dialogue with her time, vision of place and eye. In this instance, the mixture of the private. Since the s, many general museums have initiated programs—and done so without necessarily being pushed by public-minded collectors but by the pressures and promises of multiculturalism, demographic shifts, and undervalued merchandise.
This is especially true in the United States. These expansions were frequently justified in relation to the needs of an increasing Latino community. But when institutional collections and programs are too closely linked to shifts in local politics, notions of good citizenship and international policy, their commitment to the field is short-lived. Museums do need to respond to their communities, but in and of itself this response is a less than adequate way to seriously engage art.
It creates a cycle of boom and bust, attention and amnesia. The case of the Phoenix Art Museum illustrates this point. In the late s, the museum decided to expand its small Spanish colonial and Mexican modernist collections to include the rest of Latin America. Given their existing collection, a solid history of exhibitions of Mexican art, times of multiculturalism, and their position in a rapidly changing Southwest, they reasoned they could distinguish themselves from other provincial museums in the United States.
Demographics, economic accessibility, and a chance to have a boutique collection were convincing reasons to start a department of Latin American art. The initiative faded from view less than a decade later. The Halles could, living in the Southwest, invoke statistics and local politics to justify their collection. Of course we. They can amass as much or as little of any artist from any place that they want.
And then they can sell it or leave it to their children just as easily as give it to a museum. The Halle Collection started as a personal endeavor and their sensibility and interest in the art drives it still images 9 to At around works, it is relatively small, a private collection in the old sense, but it is available as a resource, for loans, has been exhibited, and anyone interested can make an appointment and come and see it images 21 to It is being created in dialogue with a curator, other collectors, and institutions in the United States and abroad.
As their collection extends beyond the private, domestic sphere, it begins to bear a certain responsibility. This public aspect, in turn, may force change in the collection, begin to shape its direction. Although the Halles do not see their collection as a primarily public project, they are fully aware that it will end up in the public sphere after their demise. They do not pretend, however, that their personal taste and vision be imposed upon an existing institutional collection or enshrined in a vanity museum.
They do not see the collection as an eternal self-contained corpus, held together by their particular sensibility. Rather, they see collecting more like a momentary gathering of diverse objects that will one day be dispersed again, able to construct other possible narratives. So they tend to imagine the possibility that their collection will be utilized to its best potential in various contexts and situations, perhaps favoring a number of institutions, finding the most convenient context for each particular piece.
In a sense each work will have its own place, a new place. The Halles take the public aspect of their collection seriously, but address it more through their foundation, not through collecting. The Bruce T. Halle Family Foundation has several fronts. It supports front line social initiatives to provide food and shelter for the most needy as well as medical research. The foundation practices three basic kinds of arts and culture patronage: advocacy and support for the arts in the communities in which they live and do business; support of exhibitions, publications, and educational programs that are furthering the creation of knowledge about Latin American art in the United States; and training for professionals in the field.
For example, in order to raise the level of awareness in the communities in which they live and work, the Halles funded a three-year project at Arizona State University called the Future Arts Research Institute which promoted connections between the arts and other disciplines through residencies for artists, curators and critics in connection with various departments of the. This kind of patronage promotes small interventions to help make art and culture part of everyday life in Arizona through connecting people and ideas. This program is similar to the support the foundation gave to the interventions component of InSite 05, which gave.
Outside of their home state they have supported many exhibitions and publications that add to the field. Thus most of the support given by the foundation to different institutional endeavors has little to do with the collection itself and the way in which it is made public. Works from the collection have been exhibited in a number of institutions in Europe, Latin America and the United States, both as particular individual loans to exhibitions and as the Halle Collection. The way in which the collection has been shown has depended largely on demand. So when there was an interest on the part of the Tucson Museum of Art and the DePauw University in Greencastle, Indiana image 33 in presenting contemporary art from the Halle Collection we gladly collaborated in the effort.
And our interest in working with these small institutions, clearly not engaged in United States debates on the region, is in essence no different from the way we approached the presentation of the collection at a major United States museum that has an important stake in the field. Short essays devoted to individual artists stand alongside other texts that have a broader thematic scope.
Both approaches are necessary in discussing a collection that takes on a vast region and time period in such a personal and even arbitrary way images 34 to Now personal or arbitrary are not terms that most collectors would like to use in describing their activities in public. Yet they do reflect their approach in a positive way, and explain how the Halle Collection departs from previous models in the United States They do not want to represent the region, and they do not need to complete the expected national representative album of images, fill gaps, find ways to represent some coherent sense of national identity, or ensure some sense of continuity or community.
They do not want to impose their view or understanding of the art onto any institution. The activism of the previous periods was out of necessity; the public. The collection, however, is not. Andrea Giunta: Thank you very much, Beverly. I would now like to present Gustavo Bruzzone. Gustavo Bruzzone: Thank you very much. These deal with collecting and public agendas, and the first issue presented involves museographic references. However, if I think about museographic references in terms of certain coherence that every collection should incline towards having, to not be just a group of paintings, then yes, these references are definitely important.
It is important from a particular position, from a scheme that you have to construct for yourself in order to be able to make purchases using certain criteria. From there, those who approach collecting or who are collecting tend to make mistakes when they are first starting out buying paintings, or they say that they used to at the beginning, to then later take on other purchases and gradually go along refining what they have, taking advantage of determined moments, either the era that they happen to be living in, the city where they live, or other factors to gradually improve.
Obviously, the attitude we need to adopt when facing contemporary art— because it often surprises us, it generates a range of sensations that our background education does not generally prepare us for, at least in Argentina—is to have an open mind and to try to be constantly learning. In other words, open in this direction. In this sense, I was extremely lucky, because I quickly connected with the artists, besides getting to know critics, theoreticians and all the rest. They were the ones who taught me a lot of things that I learned over time, like what kind of works I could consider with a view to incorporating them.
As such, as a museographic reference, what I could say is that, just like any museum, my collection refers to something. It is not a survey collection, and it is not eclectic. Today, collections attempt to be much more focused, and this is why the most important ones have curators, people who give them a profile, and position them within a determined context. This is why I think that the overall scheme is important, as Marion Helft once taught me, as a museographic reference. I invented the overall scheme of my collection, I put it together in my head. Also, for other reasons and certain intersections, that important group of.
All this as well as what may eventually appear: in every collection, the museographic references have to do with the scheme that the collector devises, to a certain. Not long ago I was told about a website called Independent collectors, that has a mini-manifesto among other things; that is to say, it presents the concerns of collectors from another part of the world who are trying to connect and be in contact with each other via Internet. In this sense, as institutional projection, an event which according to my criteria was very important, instigated by arteBA, precisely, was the meeting held last year on December 13 in the auditorium at Malba, where some of us spoke in reference to how our collections had been formed, and another group of collectors from all over the country had come and we were able to talk and create a dialogue.
Why do I mention this? Because the efforts that arteBA has continually made over the course of several years are extremely important, and we see how their fruits are present in every new edition of the fair, and it is also very important when these open up beyond the specific, past the days when the fair is taking place, to be involved in other kinds of activity and stimulus. I believe that it is important to talk about collecting in terms of patronage, as Andrea pointed out. However, it seems to me that the most important institutional support that we must provide has to do with groups of people or group projects, and in this sense, I believe that collectors begin to act alone, or in a solitary manner.
In other words, someone who collects begins to collect things from an early age on, for some reason—that Saturday in December in Malba this was plain to see: people had come from collecting toy cars or told how they used to collect coins or stamps or whatever—and at a certain point, for some reason, each one of us underwent a moment of initiation, and those of us who did not have a tradition for collecting in the family entered into this world when we bought the first painting.
And from then on, we grew more accustomed to doing it; at that moment we realized that acquiring paintings, incorporating them into our homes and beginning to live with art on our walls was something that made us feel good, and since it did us good, we knew that it was an activity that we had to continue to invigorate.
From this perspective, then, this would be an error. This is why support has to touch on all aspects, in whatever direction. For example, I ask myself why more of us are not. The annual membership fee for the CAIA is pesos; it seems to me that we could all collaborate by becoming affiliate members. Why is this so?
Because there is an important absence on the part of the university, as well as in overall terms, of cultural policies aimed toward giving greater potential to what is going on in Argentina, which is evident, for example, in a fair like this one: a fair of galleries, like arteBA, that exceeds its commitment as such to become something else, an exhibition site for artists from Buenos Aires to show to the rest of the continent and the world. As projects, artists residencies such as El Basilisco as well as the Residencia Internacional de Artistas en Argentina RIAA are important; many collectors have supported these initiatives and we have to continue to support them, because exchange between local artists and those coming from other parts of the world is also relevant, as is that between artists coming from the interior of the country to Buenos Aires and vice versa.
So then, it is useful to stimulate these types of activities. They will wind up without ramona! I could refer to thousands of things, but it seems to me that much along the same lines and in the same direction there is also. What we have to try to do from where each one of us is, is to stimulate these types of things. What can we do, instead of thinking about what these paintings are going to do for us. Businessmen and industry leaders have to be aware and well informed regarding what projects are out there and propitiate making good choices in this regard.
Now then—and I insist on this—a self-made collector has to work in a different way, and will support or continue to support however he or she can or in the way that he or she has been doing all along. First of all, there is the issue of circulation. If we have these objects, it is logical that the collections be open.
I really enjoy receiving people in my home; we set up an appointment and someone comes—above all during arteBA—; many people come to visit the collection, which is open to whoever wants to see it. Collections have to be open; the fact that Costantini or Fortabat have given us museums open to the public where their collections are kept should be applauded, and we are lucky to have them in Buenos Aires.
These are good things. Closed collections, in reality, are worthless, and if we have. This is as far as loans are concerned. As far as education is concerned, what can a home-grown collector do? Or how can we make a contribution? For example, Malba has an educational program; children and schools come, and they do certain projects. It occurred to me that I could have an influence in some way. Sometimes the worlds in which you circulate can wind up overlapping; this was a way to have my worlds intersect, and to try to educate.
In the law faculty, I have been a professor for twenty-two years. When I give exams on cases, students have to resolve penal law cases or those involving penal process law. During the first years that I was doing this,. Naturally, the exams to resolve the cases are open-book, so they would come with notes and could copy… Well, I managed to stimulate them in this direction. In class, I even tell. In my time I used to go to Italpark1 when I had free time; not anymore. Out of a group of some sixty students, the good ones, the ones who are going to continue working at the university, may be one out of three classes, and the same thing happens here, so that if maybe two of them go to see something one day… Lastly, there is the question of consolidating public patrimonies.
I would present it like this: when we collect, what we are doing can be seen in different ways; the way I see it is that whoever is collecting Argentinean contemporary art, for whatever reason, and regardless of what they may have, is preserving a small piece of the capacity that we Argentineans have for cultural production. The little piece that occurred to me is the one that I told you about, that history, and it has to do with this, and with that other, and I put together my own idea in my head and I talk about that, and it intersects with anecdotes and emotional ties, because I became friends with all these people and with that moment in time, and I continue to enjoy all that.
In the manifesto that I mentioned, Independent collectors, it talks about the passion that you start out with, what you feel when you want to have works of art and what that. I see that, and I experience that and I feel that way. Maybe a change has to take place, and we should stimulate dialogue with the authorities in order for this to take place. If not, we will have to do it ourselves, because you have to accept this, you have to pick up the glove, it is a responsibility of sorts.
To the extent that we are able to do so, keeping collections open, working toward the future and generating projects, whatever they may be: circulation, publishing projects, support for research; whatever. And we should always go back and ask ourselves: What is it that I can do for all this that I enjoy, in what way can I stimulate and continue to generate it? Andrea Giunta: Thank you very much. Rodrigo Moura: Firstly, I would like to thank Andrea Giunta and arteBA for the invitation to participate in this round table on a topic as important as this one in our context.
I will make a quick presentation to try to respond to some of the questions that have been put forth in regard to the topic of the round table and then I will show some images. Inhotim is the name of a small district of Brumadinho municipality, in the State of Minas Gerais, 60 kilometers from Belo Horizonte. Bernardo Paz, who conceived of and founded the project, established a small country house in this place during the mids, and during the same era, began to collect modern Brazilian art, principally from the post-war period.
At the same time, in collaboration with Roberto Burle Marx, who was the great Brazilian landscape artist from the modern generation, he created park grounds in relation to the house and the collection. Burle Marx was on the property several times during the s and early s, and he informally helped to create the park grounds. That collection evolved in quite an organic fashion, as is usually the case in private collections, and at a certain point in time, Paz developed an interest in collecting contemporary art instead of modern art, from Brazil at the outset.
This was due to his interest in being in closer contact with the artists. The two artists who were closest to him and influenced this process the most were Tunga and Cildo Meireles, and the dialogue with Paz led in a first instance to several key acquisitions that we will see later. However, this dialogue between collector and artist also led him to believe that in that place, being a country house, it would be possible to escape the conventional context of a private collection; that there, he could create a kind of art center that, although private, would be a place where key works by some of these Brazilian artists could be seen.
This took place during the late s and the beginning of That project evolved quite quickly, in terms of developing the collection. The modern collection, which was small, gave way to a large collection of contemporary art and to a museum complex based on the principle of having several smaller constructions and the park grounds, where the.
This was basically the beginning. However, many years ago, the Brazilian state renounced its role in expanding its collections. Additionally, there has been a very incipient access to private collections: there is no clear public policy to stimulate that, by way of donations, these collections wind up being accessible to the public. As a result, while on the one hand we can speak about a certain egotism on the part of collectors who do not destine works for public collections—in other words, that do not plan on museum storage space—yet on the other hand, the government does not have any cultural or tributary policies that encourage them to do so.
This situation leads to the fragmentation and pulverization of these collections, when there should be a public policy of resources and political will focused on maintaining them. One recent case is that of the Leirner collection, that wound up going to a museum in the United States. With this example, I am not defending a nationalist attitude, and much less criticizing the institution that bought from the collector who sold it, but merely saying that the collection could have remained in Brazil if clearer mechanisms had existed to make it possible, such as economic conditions on the part of the state that would make guarantees.