Eventually the Industrial Revolution spread to other parts of Europe. Many people in the countryside migrated to major cities like Paris, Berlin, and Amsterdam, which were connected like never before by railroads. Europe soon had its own class of wealthy industrialists, and large numbers of industrial workers. New ideologies emerged as a reaction against perceived abuses of industrial society. Among these ideologies were socialism and the more radical communism , created by the German Karl Marx.
According to communism, history was a series of class struggles, and at the time industrial workers were pitted against their employers. Inevitably the workers would rise up in a worldwide revolution and abolish private property, according to Marx. Communism was also atheistic, since, according to Marx, religion was simply a tool used by the dominant class to keep the oppressed class docile. Several revolutions occurred in Europe following the Napoleonic Wars. The goal of most of these revolutions was to establish some form of democracy in a particular nation. Many were successful for a time, but their effects were often eventually reversed.
Examples of this occurred in Spain, Italy, and Austria. Several European nations stood steadfastly against revolution and democracy, including Austria and Russia. Two successful revolts of the era were the Greek and Serbian wars of independence, which freed those nations from Ottoman rule.
Another successful revolution occurred in the Low Countries. The Dutch found it hard to rule the Belgians, due to their Catholic religion and French language. In the s, the Belgians successfully overthrew Dutch rule, establishing the Kingdom of Belgium. In a series of revolutions occurred in Prussia, Austria, and France.
In France, the king, Louis-Philippe , was overthrown and a republic was declared. Louis Napoleon , nephew of Napoleon I was elected the republic's first president. Revolutionaries in Prussia and Italy focused more on nationalism, and most advocated the establishment of unified German and Italian states, respectively. In the city-states of Italy , many argued for a unification of all the Italian kingdoms into a single nation.
Obstacles to this included the many Italian dialects spoken by the people of Italy, and the Austrian presence in the north of the peninsula.
Unification of the peninsula began in The powerful Kingdom of Sardinia also called Savoy or Piedmont formed an alliance with France and went to war with Austria in that year. The war ended with a Sardinian victory, and Austrian forces left Italy. Plebiscites were held in several cities, and the majority of people voted for union with Sardinia, creating the Kingdom of Italy under Victor Emmanuel II.
In , the Italian nationalist Garibaldi led revolutionaries in an overthrow of the government of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. A plebiscite held there resulted in a unification of that kingdom with Italy. Italian forces seized the eastern Papal States in In , Italian troops conquered the Papal States , completing unification. Pope Pius IX refused to recognize the Italian government or negotiate settlement for the loss of Church land.
Prussia in the middle and late parts of the 19th century was ruled by its king, Wilhelm I , and its skilled chancellor, Otto von Bismarck. In , Prussia went to war with Denmark and gained several German-speaking lands as a result. In , Prussia went to war with the Austrian Empire and won, and created a confederation of it and several German states , called the North German Confederation , setting the stage for the formation of the German Empire.
After years of dealing with Hungarian revolutionist, whose kingdom Austria had conquered centuries earlier, the Austrian emperor, Franz Joseph agreed to divide the empire into two parts: Austria and Hungary, and rule as both Emperor of Austria and king of Hungary. The new Austro-Hungarian Empire was created in The two peoples were united in loyalty to the monarch and Catholicism.
There were changes throughout the West in science, religion and culture between and Europe in differed greatly from its state in Most Western European nations had some degree of democracy, and two new national states had been created, Italy and Germany. Political parties were formed throughout the continent and with the spread of industrialism, Europe's economy was transformed, although it remained very agricultural. The 19th and early 20th centuries saw important contributions to the process of modernisation of Western art and Literature and continuing evolution in the role of religion in Western societies.
Napoleon re-established the Catholic Church in France through the Concordat of Pressure for abolition of anti-Catholic laws grew and in Parliament passed the Roman Catholic Relief Act , giving Catholics almost equal civil rights, including the right to vote and to hold most public offices. Many Westerners became less religious in this period, although a majority of people still held traditional Christian beliefs. The publication of On the Origin of Species , by the English naturalist Charles Darwin , provided an alternative hypothesis for the development, diversification, and design of human life to the traditional poetic scriptural explanation known as Creationism.
According to Darwin, only the organisms most able to adapt to their environment survived while others became extinct. Adaptations resulted in changes in certain populations of organisms which could eventually cause the creation of new species. Modern genetics started with Gregor Johann Mendel , a German-Czech Augustinian monk who studied the nature of inheritance in plants.
Geologists at the time made discoveries indicating the world was far older than most believed it to be. Early batteries were invented and a telegraph system was also invented, allowing global communication. In Russian chemist Dmitri Mendeleev published his Periodic table. The success of Mendeleev's table came from two decisions he made: The first was to leave gaps in the table when it seemed that the corresponding element had not yet been discovered.
The second decision was to occasionally ignore the order suggested by the atomic weights and switch adjacent elements, such as cobalt and nickel , to better classify them into chemical families. In Europe by the 19th century, fashion had shifted away from such the artistic styles as Mannerism , Baroque and Rococo which followed the Renaissance and sought to revert to the earlier, simpler art of the Renaissance by creating Neoclassicism. Neoclassicism complemented the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment , which was similarly idealistic.
Ingres , Canova , and Jacques-Louis David are among the best-known neoclassicists. Just as Mannerism rejected Classicism, so did Romanticism reject the ideas of the Enlightenment and the aesthetic of the Neoclassicists. Romanticism emphasized emotion and nature, and idealized the Middle Ages. Romantic art focused on the use of color and motion in order to portray emotion, but like classicism used Greek and Roman mythology and tradition as an important source of symbolism. Another important aspect of Romanticism was its emphasis on nature and portraying the power and beauty of the natural world.
Romanticism was also a large literary movement, especially in poetry. Some of the best regarded poets of the era were women. Mary Wollstonecraft had written one of the first works of feminist philosophy, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman which called for equal education for women in and her daughter, Mary Shelley became an accomplished author best known for her novel Frankenstein , which examined some of the frightening potential of the rapid advances of science. In early 19th-century Europe, in response to industrialization , the movement of Realism emerged.
Realism sought to accurately portray the conditions and hardships of the poor in the hopes of changing society.
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In contrast with Romanticism, which was essentially optimistic about mankind, Realism offered a stark vision of poverty and despair. Similarly, while Romanticism glorified nature, Realism portrayed life in the depths of an urban wasteland. Like Romanticism, Realism was a literary as well as an artistic movement.
Writers also sought to come to terms with the new industrial age. Leavis have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. In the second half of the century Anton Chekhov excelled in writing short stories and became perhaps the leading dramatist internationally of his period. American literature also progressed with the development of a distinct voice: Mark Twain produced his masterpieces Tom Sawyer and Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. In Britain's Australian colonies, bush balladeers such as Henry Lawson and Banjo Paterson brought the character of a new continent to the pages of world literature.
The response of architecture to industrialisation, in stark contrast to the other arts, was to veer towards historicism. The railway stations built during this period are often called "the cathedrals of the age". Architecture during the Industrial Age witnessed revivals of styles from the distant past, such as the Gothic Revival —in which style the iconic Palace of Westminster in London was re-built to house the mother parliament of the British Empire.
Out of the naturalist ethic of Realism grew a major artistic movement, Impressionism. The Impressionists pioneered the use of light in painting as they attempted to capture light as seen from the human eye. As a direct outgrowth of Impressionism came the development of Post-Impressionism. In Australia the Heidelberg School was expressing the light and colour of Australian landscape with a new insight and vigour. The Industrial Revolution which began in Britain in the 18th century brought increased leisure time, leading to more time for citizens to attend and follow spectator sports, greater participation in athletic activities, and increased accessibility.
The bat and ball sport of cricket was first played in England during the 16th century and was exported around the globe via the British Empire. A number of popular modern sports were devised or codified in Britain during the 19th century and obtained global prominence — these include Ping Pong ,   modern tennis ,  Association Football , Netball and Rugby.
The United States also developed popular international sports during this period. English migrants took antecedents of baseball to America during the colonial period. American football resulted from several major divergences from rugby, most notably the rule changes instituted by Walter Camp. Basketball was invented in by James Naismith , a Canadian physical education instructor working in Springfield, Massachusetts in the United States.
Baron Pierre de Coubertin , a Frenchman, instigated the modern revival of the Olympic Games , with the first modern Olympics were held at Athens in The years between and saw the expansion of Western power. The Empire of Japan is the only one non-Western power involved in this new era of imperialism. Although the West had had a presence in Africa for centuries, its colonies were limited mostly to Africa's coast. The period between and is often called the Scramble for Africa , due to the competition between European nations for control of Africa.
In , France occupied Algeria in North Africa. Many Frenchman settled on Algeria's Mediterranean coast. In Britain annexed Egypt. France eventually conquered most of Morocco and Tunisia as well. Libya was conquered by the Italians.
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Spain gained a small part of Morocco and modern-day Western Sahara. Germany also established two colonies in West Africa, and Portugal had one as well. Central Africa was dominated by the Belgian Congo. At first the colony was ruled by Belgium's king, Leopold II , however his regime was so brutal the Belgian government took over the colony.
The Germans and French also established colonies in Central Africa. The British and Italians were the two dominant powers in East Africa , although France also had a colony there. Southern Africa was dominated by Britain. Tensions between the British Empire and the Boer republics led to the Boer Wars , fought on and off between the s and , ending in a British victory.
The British established several other colonies in Southern Africa. The Portuguese and Germans also established a presence in Southern Africa. The French conquered the island of Madagascar. By , Africa had only two independent nations, Liberia , a nation founded in West Africa by free black Americans earlier in the 19th century, and the ancient kingdom of Ethiopia in East Africa.
Many Africans, like the Zulus , resisted European rule, but in the end Europe succeeded in conquering and transforming the continent. Missionaries arrived and established schools, while industrialists helped establish rubber , diamond and gold industries on the continent. Perhaps the most ambitious change by Europeans was the construction of the Suez Canal in Egypt, allowing ships to travel from the Atlantic to the Indian Ocean without having to go all the way around Africa. Soon every major Western power as well as Russia and Japan had spheres of influence in China, although the country remained independent.
One of the few independent nations in this region at the time was Siam. The British even built a new capital in India, New Delhi. Britain, however, established a sphere of influence in Persia and a few small colonies in Arabia and coastal Mesopotamia. The Pacific islands were conquered by Germany, the U.
In , the ruling class of colonists in Hawaii overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy of Queen Liliuokalani and established a republic. Since most of the leaders of the overthrow were Americans or descendants of Americans, they asked to be annexed by the United States, which agreed to the annexation in Latin America was largely free from foreign rule throughout this period, although the United States and Britain had a great deal of influence over the region.
Britain had two colonies on the Latin American mainland, while the United States, following , had several in the Caribbean. The U. Other countries also faced American interventions from time to time, mostly in the Caribbean and southern North America. Competition over control of overseas colonies sometimes led to war between Western powers, and between Western powers and non-Westerners.
At the turn of the 20th century, Britain fought several wars with Afghanistan to prevent it from falling under the influence of Russia, which ruled all of Central Asia excluding Afghanistan. Britain and France nearly went to war over control of Africa. In , the United States and Spain went to war after an American naval ship was sunk in the Caribbean. Although today it is generally held that the sinking was an accident, at the time the U. Important resistance movements to Western Imperialism included the Boxer Rebellion , fought against the colonial powers in China, and the Philippine—American War , fought against the United States, both of which failed.
The Russo-Turkish War —78 left the Ottoman Empire little more than an empty shell, but the failing empire was able to hang on into the 20th century, until its final partition , which left the British and French colonial empires in control of much of the former Ottoman ruled Arab countries of Middle East British Mandate of Palestine , British Mandate of Mesopotamia , French Mandate of Syria , French Mandate of Lebanon , in addition to the British occupation of Egypt from Even though this happened centuries after the West had given up its futile attempts to conquer the "Holy Land" under religious pretexts, this fuelled resentment against the " Crusaders " in the Islamic world, together with the nationalisms hatched under Ottoman rule contributing to the development of Islamism.
The expanding Western powers greatly changed the societies they conquered. Many connected their empires via railroad and telegraph and constructed churches, schools, and factories. By the late 19th century, the world was dominated by a few great powers , including Great Britain, the United States, and Germany. France, Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were also great powers.
Western inventors and industrialists transformed the West in the late 19th century and early 20th century. The American Thomas Edison pioneered electricity and motion picture technology. Other American inventors, the Wright brothers , completed the first successful airplane flight in The first automobiles were also invented in this period. Petroleum became an important commodity after the discovery it could be used to power machines. Steel was developed in Britain by Henry Bessemer.
This very strong metal, combined with the invention of elevators, allowed people to construct very tall buildings, called skyscrapers. In the late 19th century, the Italian Guglielmo Marconi was able to communicate across distances using radio. In , the first telephone was invented by Alexander Graham Bell , a British expatriate living in America.
Unions continued to fight for the rights of workers, and by laws limiting working hours and outlawing child labor had been passed in many Western countries. Culturally, the English-speaking nations were in the midst of the Victorian Era , named for Britain's queen. In France, this period is called the Belle Epoque , a period of many artistic and cultural achievements. The suffragette movement began in this period, which sought to gain voting rights for women, with New Zealand and Australian parliaments granting women's suffrage in the s.
However, by , only a dozen U. Cities grew as never before between and This led at first to unsanitary and crowded living conditions, especially for the poor. However, by , municipal governments were providing police and fire departments and garbage removal services to their citizens, leading to a drop in death rates. Unfortunately, pollution from burning coal and wastes left by thousands of horses that crowded the streets worsened the quality of life in many urban areas.
Paris, lit up by gas and electric light, and containing the tallest structure in the world at the time, the Eiffel Tower , was often looked to as an ideal modern city, and served as a model for city planners around the world. After the war, the former Confederate States were put under federal occupation and federal lawmakers attempted to gain equality for blacks by outlawing slavery and giving them citizenship. After several years, however, Southern states began rejoining the Union as their populations pledged loyalty to the United States government, and in Reconstruction as this period was called, came to an end.
After being re-admitted to the Union, Southern lawmakers passed segregation laws and laws preventing blacks from voting, resulting in blacks being regarded as second-class citizens for decades to come. Another great change beginning in the s was the settlement of the western territories by Americans. The population growth in the American West led to the creation of many new western states, and by all the land of the contiguous U. As whites settled the West, however, conflicts occurred with the Amerindians.
After several Indian Wars , the Amerindians were forcibly relocated to small reservations throughout the West and by whites were the dominant ethnic group in the American West. As the farming and cattle industries of the American West matured and new technology allowed goods to be refrigerated and brought to other parts of the country and overseas, people's diets greatly improved and contributed to increased population growth throughout the West. America's population greatly increased between and , due largely to immigration.
Immigrants often faced discrimination, because many differed from most Americans in religion and culture. Despite this, most immigrants found work and enjoyed a greater degree of freedom than in their home countries. The vast majority, at least by the second generation, learned English, and adopted American culture, while at the same time contributing to American culture.
For example, the celebration of ethnic holidays and the introduction of foreign cuisine to America. These new groups also changed America's religious landscape. Although it remained mostly Protestant , Catholics especially, as well as Jews and Orthodox Christians , increased in number. Despite this, most Americans were reluctant to get involved in world affairs, and American presidents generally tried to keep the U. The years between and saw the rise of Germany as the dominant power in Europe. By the late 19th century, Germany had surpassed Britain to become the world's greatest industrial power.
It also had the mightiest army in Europe. Prussia won the war and gained two border territories, Alsace and Lorraine , from France. After the war, Wilhelm took the title kaiser from the Roman title caesar , proclaimed the German Empire , and all the German states other than Austria united with this new nation, under the leadership of Prussian Chancellor Otto von Bismarck.
During this time, France was increasingly divided between Catholics and monarchists and anticlerical and republican forces. In , church and state were officially separated in France, although the majority of the population remained Catholic.
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France also found itself weakened industrially following its war with Prussia due to its loss of iron and coal mines following the war. In addition, France's population was smaller than Germany's and was hardly growing. Despite all this, France's strong sense of nationhood among other things kept the country together. Between and , Britain continued to peacefully switch between Liberal and Conservative governments, and maintained its vast empire, the largest in world history. Two problems faced by Britain in this period were the resentment of British rule in Ireland and Britain's falling behind Germany and the United States in industrial production.
The European populations of Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa all continued to grow and thrive in this period and evolved democratic Westminster system parliaments. The colony of New Zealand gained its own parliament called a "general assembly" and home rule in In they were federated as an independent nation under the British Crown, known as the Commonwealth of Australia , with a wholly elected bicameral parliament. The Constitution of Australia had been drafted in Australia and approved by popular consent. Thus Australia is one of the few countries established by a popular vote.
From the s, Canada, Australia and New Zealand had become laboratories of democracy. By the s, they had already granted voting rights to their citizens in advance of most other Western nations. In , New Zealand became the first self-governing nation to extend the right to vote to women and, in , the women of South Australia became the first to obtain also the right to stand for Parliament.
During the s Australia also saw such milestones as the invention of the secret ballot , the introduction of a minimum wage and the election of the world's first Labor Party government, prefiguring the emergence of Social Democratic governments in Europe. The old age pension was established in Australia and New Zealand by From the s, the Heidelberg School of art adapted Western painting techniques to Australian conditions, while writers like Banjo Paterson and Henry Lawson introduced the character of a new continent into English literature and antipodean artists such as the opera singer Dame Nellie Melba began to influence the European arts.
The late 19th century saw the creation of several alliances in Europe. France and Russia also developed strong relations with one another, due to the financing of Russia's Industrial Revolution by French capitalists. Although it did not have a formal alliance, Russia supported the Slavic Orthodox nations of the Balkans and the Caucasus, which had been created in the 19th century after several wars and revolutions against the Ottoman Empire , which by now was in decline and ruled only parts of the southern Balkan Peninsula. Franco-German relations were also tense in this period due to France's defeat and loss of land at the hands of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War.
Also in this period, Britain ended its policy of isolation from the European continent and formed an alliance with France, called the Entente Cordiale. Rather than achieve greater security for the nations of Europe, however, these alliances increased the chances of a general European war breaking out.
Other factors that would eventually lead to World War I were the competition for overseas colonies, the military buildups of the period, most notably Germany's, and the feeling of intense nationalism throughout the continent. When the war broke out, much of the fighting was between Western powers, and the immediate casus belli was an assassination. The victim was the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Franz Ferdinand , and he was assassinated on 28 June by a Yugoslav nationalist named Gavrilo Princip in the city of Sarajevo , at the time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Although Serbia agreed to all but one point of the Austrian ultimatum it did not take responsibility in planning the assassination but was ready to hand over any subject involved on its territory , Austria-Hungary was more than eager to declare war, attacked Serbia and effectively began World War I. Germany responded by declaring war on Russia as well as France, which it feared would ally with Russia.
The war quickly stalemated, with trenches being dug from the North Sea to Switzerland. The war also made use of new and relatively new technology and weapons, including machine guns , airplanes , tanks , battleships , and submarines. Even chemical weapons were used at one point.
The war spread throughout the globe with colonial armies clashing in Africa and Pacific nations such as Japan and Australia, allied with Britain, attacking German colonies in the Pacific. Unable to secure an early victory in , British Empire forces later attacked from further south after the beginning of Arab revolt and conquered Mesopotamia and Palestine from the Ottomans with the support of local Arab rebels and supported an Arab revolt against the Ottomans centered in the Arabian Peninsula. The United States had followed a policy of neutrality in the war, feeling it was a European conflict.
However, during the course of the war many Americans had died on board British ocean liners sunk by the Germans, leading to anti-German feelings in the U. There had also been incidents of sabotage on American soil, including the Black Tom explosion. What finally led to American involvement in the war, however, was the discovery of the Zimmermann Telegram , in which Germany offered to help Mexico conquer part of the United States if it formed an alliance with Germany.
In April, the U. The same year the U. Nicholas abdicated and a Liberal provisional government was set up. In October, Russian communists, led by Vladimir Lenin rose up against the government, resulting in a civil war. Eventually, the communists won and Lenin became premier. Feeling World War I was a capitalist conflict, Lenin signed a peace treaty with Germany in which it gave up a great deal of its Central and Eastern European lands.
Although Germany and its allies no longer had to focus on Russia, the large numbers of American troops and weapons reaching Europe turned the tide against Germany, and after more than a year of fighting, Germany surrendered. The treaties which ended the war, including the famous Versailles Treaty dealt harshly with Germany and its former allies. The Austro-Hungarian Empire were completely abolished and Germany was greatly reduced in size. Many nations regained their independence, including Poland , Czechoslovakia , and Yugoslavia.
The last Austro-Hungarian emperor abdicated, and two new republics, Austria and Hungary , were created. The last Ottoman sultan was overthrown by the Turkish nationalist revolutionist named Ataturk and the Ottoman homeland of Turkey was declared a republic. Germany's kaiser also abdicated and Germany was declared a republic.
Germany was also forced to give up the lands it had gained in the Franco-Prussian War to France, accept responsibility for the war, reduce its military and pay reparations to Britain and France. France gained Syria and Lebanon. An independent kingdom consisting of most of the Arabian peninsula, Saudi Arabia , was also established. The war had cost millions of lives and led many in the West to develop a strong distaste for war.
Few were satisfied with, and many despised the agreements made at the end of the war. Japanese and Italians were angry they had not been given any new colonies after the war, and many Americans felt the war had been a mistake. Germans were outraged at the state of their country following the war. Also, unlike many in the United States for example, had hoped, democracy did not flourish in the world in the post-war period.
The League of Nations , an international organization proposed by American president Woodrow Wilson to prevent another great war from breaking out, proved ineffective, especially because the isolationist U. After World War I, most Americans regretted getting involved in world affairs and desired a " return to normalcy ". The s were a period of economic prosperity in the United States. Many Americans bought cars, radios, and other appliances with the help of installment payments.
Movie theaters sprang up throughout the country, although at first they did not have sound. Also, many Americans invested in the stock market as a source of income. Also in the s, alcoholic beverages were outlawed in the United States. Women were granted the right to vote throughout the United States.
Although the United States was arguably the most powerful nation in the post-war period, Americans remained isolationist and elected several conservative presidents in the s. Many lost their life's savings and the resulting decline in consumer spending led millions to lose their jobs as banks and businesses closed. In the Midwestern United States , a severe drought destroyed many farmers' livelihoods.
In , Americans elected Franklin D. Roosevelt president. Roosevelt followed a series of policies which regulated the stock market and banks, and created many public works programs aimed at providing the unemployed with work. As the birthplace of the Reformation, Germany has been the site of some of the most significant moments in the history of European Christianity. Today, however, its religious landscape is one that would scarcely be recognizable to earlier generations.
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Since unification, eastern Germany has witnessed a rapidly changing memorial landscape, as the fate of former socialist monuments has been hotly debated and new commemorative projects have met with fierce controversy. Memorializing the GDR provides the first in-depth study of this contested arena of public memory, investigating the individuals and groups devoted to the creation or destruction of memorials as well as their broader aesthetic, political, and historical contexts.
Emphasizing the interrelationship of built environment, memory and identity, it brings to light the conflicting memories of recent German history, as well as the nuances of national and regional constructions of identity. Chancellor Angela Merkel has dominated German and European politics for almost a decade. Her stellar reputation, sound political and economic management, and popularity inside of Germany resulted in one of the most decisive electoral victories for her conservative parties in postwar Germany—the country can rightfully be deemed the Merkel Republic.
Bringing together German politics experts from both sides of the Atlantic, this volume addresses the campaign, results, and consequences of the Bundestag election. Chapters delve into a diverse array of themes, including immigrant-origin and women candidates, the fate of the small parties, and the prospects for the SPD, the new coalition partner, as well as more general structural trends like the Europeanization and cosmopolitanization of German politics.
Within Germany, policies and cultural attitudes toward migrants have been profoundly shaped by the difficult legacies of the Second World War and its aftermath. German unification and the political and economic transformations in central Europe signal profound political changes that pose many questions. Will post-Communism push ahead with the task of institutionalizing a democratic capitalism?
How will that process be aided or disrupted by international developments in the East and West? And how will central Europe relate to united Germany? Based on original field research this book offers, through more than a dozen case studies, a cautiously optimistic set of answers to these questions. The end of the Cold War and German unification, the empirical evidence indicates, are not returning Germany and central Europe to historically troubled, imbalanced, bilateral relationships.
Rather changes in the character of German and European politics as well as the transformations now affecting Poland, Hungary, the Czech Republic and Slovakia point to the emergence of multilateral relationships linking Germany and central Europe in an internationalizing, democratic Europe.
Twenty years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this important book explores the role of France in the events leading up to the end of the Cold War and German unification. Most accounts concentrate on the role of the United States and look at these events through the bipolar prism of Soviet-American relations. Based on extensive research and a vast amount of archival sources, this book explores the role played by France in shaping a new European order.
Bringing together incisive contributions from an international group of colleagues and former students, Modern Germany in Transatlantic Perspective takes stock of the field of German history as exemplified by the extraordinary scholarly career of Konrad H. In Bavaria was not only the largest and best known but also the poorest, most agricultural, and most industrially backward region of Germany.
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It was further its most politically conservative region. The largest political party in Bavaria was the Christian Social Union CSU , an extremely conservative, even reactionary, regional party. In the ensuing twenty years, the leaders of the CSU's small liberal wing in particular Franz Josef Strauss, long-time party chair and the most colorful and polarizing politician in postwar Germany broke with the anti-industrial traditions of Bavarian Catholic politics and made themselves useful to industry. With tactical brilliance the politicians pursued their individual political ambitions, rather than a coherent modernization strategy, which, by , had turned Bavaria into a prosperous Land, the center of Germany's new aerospace, defense, and energy industries, with a disproportionate share of its research institutes.
Despite the three decades that have passed since the fall of the Berlin Wall, the historical narrative of East Germany is hardly fixed in public memory, as German society continues to grapple with the legacies of the Cold War. This fascinating ethnography looks at two very different types of local institutions in one eastern German state that take divergent approaches to those legacies: while publicly funded organizations reliably cast the GDR as a dictatorship, a main regional newspaper offers a more ambivalent perspective colored by the experiences and concerns of its readers.
As author Anselma Gallinat shows, such memory work—initially undertaken after fundamental regime change—inevitably shapes citizenship and democracy in the present. After , those responsible for conservation in Germany resumed their work with a relatively high degree of continuity as far as laws and personnel were concerned. Yet conservationists soon found they had little choice but to modernize their views and practices in the challenging postwar context. Forced to change by necessity, those involved in state-sponsored conservation institutionalized and professionalized their efforts, while several private groups became more confrontational in their message and tactics.
Through their steady and often conservative presence within the mainstream of West German society, conservationists ensured that by the map of the country was dotted with hundreds of reserves, dozens of nature parks, and one national park. In doing so, they assured themselves a strong position to participate in, rather than be excluded from, the left-leaning environmental movement of the s. International media overflowed with images of marches, rallies, and human chains as protesters blockaded depots and agitated for disarmament.
For all of its apparent simplicity—a few chords, twelve bars, and a supposedly straightforward American character—blues music is a complex phenomenon with cultural significance that has varied greatly across different historical contexts. One Sound, Two Worlds examines the development of the blues in East and West Germany, demonstrating the multiple ways social and political conditions can shape the meaning of music. Based on new archival research and conversations with key figures, this comparative study provides a cultural, historical, and musicological account of the blues and the impact of the genre not only in the two Germanys, but also in debates about the history of globalization.
The long path to the Berlin Wall began in , when Josef Stalin instructed the Communist Party to take power in the Soviet occupation zone while the three Western allies secured their areas of influence. When Germany was split into separate states in , Berlin remained divided into four sectors, with West Berlin surrounded by the GDR but lingering as a captivating showcase for Western values and goods.
Tracing this path from a German perspective, Manfred Wilke draws on recently published conversations between Khrushchev and Walter Ulbricht, head of the East German state, in order to reconstruct the coordination process between these two leaders and the events that led to building the Berlin Wall. Although it was characterized by simmering international tensions, the early Cold War also witnessed dramatic instances of reconciliation between states, as former antagonists rebuilt political, economic, and cultural ties in the wake of the Second World War.
And such efforts were not confined to official diplomacy, as this study of postwar rapprochement between Poland and West Germany demonstrates. Drawing on a wide range of sources, Peace at All Costs follows Polish and German non-state activists who attempted to establish dialogue in the s and s, showing how they achieved modest successes and media attention at the cost of more nuanced approaches to their national histories and identities. The establishment of the Communist social model in one part of Germany was a result of international postwar developments, of the Cold War waged by East and West, and of the resultant partition of Germany.
Although the hopes connected with this alternative system turned out to be misplaced and the planned economy may be thoroughly discredited today, it is important to understand the context in which it developed and failed.
As this study convincingly shows, it was the economic model that led to failure. This book explains why concerns that the Nazi past would be marginalized by the more recent Communist past proved to be misplaced. It examines the delicate East—West dynamics and the notion that the West sought to impose "victor's justice" or history on the East.
More specifically, it examines, for the first time, the history and significance of two parliamentary commissions of inquiry created in the s to investigate the divided past after and its effects on the reunified country. Not unlike "truth commissions" elsewhere, these inquiries provided an important forum for renegotiating contemporary Germany's relationship with multiple German pasts, including the Nazi period and the Holocaust.
The ensuing debates and disagreements over the recent past, examined by the author, open up a window into the wider development of German memory, identity, and politics after the end of the Cold War. At a time when part-time jobs are ubiquitous, it is easy to forget that they are a relatively new phenomenon. This book explores the reasons behind the introduction of this specific form of work in West Germany and shows how it took root, in both norm and law, in factories, government authorities, and offices as well as within families and the lives of individual women.
The author covers the period from the early s, a time of optimism during the first postwar economic upswing, to , the culmination of the legislative institutionalization of part-time work. Although German unification has had a profound impact on European integration and economic development, very few studies of the East German economy exist. The editors of this volume have therefore brought together specialists in economics and politics who analyze such important issues as privatization, monetary reform and unemployment.
The aim is to provide scholars and generally interested readers with a critical understanding of the complex processes of German unification and to identify the general lessons that can be learnt from their analysis for economies and societies that undergo such profound transformations as has been the case in East Germany since the early s. While unification has undoubtedly had major effects on Germany's political economy, the pattern of current policy-making preferences was established at an earlier stage, in particular, at the beginning of the 'Kohl-era' in This essentially neo-liberal pattern can be seen to have dominated the modalities chosen to guide Germany through the process of unifi cation and was mirrored in developments in other OECD countries and in particular within the EU.
This book demonstrates that the three policy imperatives neo-liberal structural reform, European monetary integration, and unification produced a policy-mix which, together with other structural economic and demographic factors, has had disappointing results in all three areas and hampered Germany's overall economic development. This revised and enlarged edition brings the successful original volume of right up to date, taking into account the most recent developments. Each section begins with an introduction that provides the context for the following documents.
There is no comparable volume of its kind available in English, and most documents have not previously been translated. The post-Cold War era has witnessed a dramatic transformation in the German political consensus about the legitimacy of the use of force. However, in comparison with its EU and NATO partners, Germany has been reticent to transform its military to meet the challenges of the contemporary security environment. Until territorial defence rather than crisis-management remained the armed forces' core role and the Bundeswehr continues to retain conscription.
The book argues that 'strategic culture' provides only a partial explanation of German military reform. It demonstrates how domestic material factors were of crucial importance in shaping the pace and outcome of reform, despite the impact of 'international structure' and adaptational pressures from the EU and NATO.
The domestic politics of base closures, ramifications for social policy, financial restrictions consequent upon German unification and commitment to EMU's Stability and Growth Pact were critical in determining the outcome of reform. The study also draws out the important role of policy leaders in the political management of reform as entrepreneurs, brokers or veto players, shifting the focus in German leadership studies away from a preoccupation with the Chancellor to the role of ministerial and administrative leadership within the core executive.
Finally, the book contributes to our understanding of the Europeanization of the German political system, arguing that policy leaders played a key role in 'uploading' and 'downloading' processes to and from the EU and that Defence Ministers used 'Atlanticization' and 'Europeanization' in the interests of their domestic political agendas. The communist German Democratic Republic, founded in in the Soviet-occupied zone of post-war Germany is, for many people, epitomized by the Berlin Wall; Soviet tanks and surveillance by the secret security police, the Stasi, appear to be central.
How did people come to terms with their situation and make new lives behind the Wall? When the social history of the GDR in the s and s is explored, new patterns become evident. Growing participation in the micro-structures of power, and conformity to the unwritten rules of an increasingly predictable system, suggest increasing accommodation to dominant norms and conceptions of socialist 'normality'. Germany's landmark election saw for the first time in the Republic's fifty-year historyan incumbent Chancellor and his entire government replaced.
In this collection fourteen distinguished scholars, from both sides of the Atlantic, have come together to give the first detailed scholarly account of this historic event. From a variety of perspectives the essays, based on in-depth interviews, explore the election candidates, parties, and issues, and places them within the context of the Federal Republic's history, the end of the Bonn Republic and the beginning of the Berlin Republic.
Special chapters focus on the growing importance of women inelectoral politics, voting behavior and the influence of the media, and the significance of the election for the European Union. Based on in-depth interviews with political leaders and extensive field research this book is ideally suited for specialists in German and European politics and the interested reader who wants far more depth of coverage than the main stream media can provide.
There is much discussion these days about public diplomacy—communicating directly with the people of other countries rather than through their diplomats—but little information about what it actually entails. Part history, part memoir, it takes readers into the trenches of the Cold War and demonstrates what public diplomacy can do.
It also provides examples of what could be done today in countries where anti-Americanism runs high. The campaign and election was one of the most dramatic in the history of the Federal Republic. An unprecedented last minute swing narrowly re-elected the Social Democratic-Green government of Chancellor Schroeder. The campaign featured the first-ever American style television debate between the two candidates for the chancellorship.
Bush, played an unusually important role. In the aftermath of the election the government was faced with a deteriorating economy and the charge of the opposition that it had deliberately mislead voters during the campaign. In this volume, distinguished experts from both sides of the Atlantic analyse these and other critical issues. Their work is based on extensive research in Germany and Washington, which included interviews with major political figures and the collection of new campaign and election data.
Contributors: William Patterson, E. German unification evoked ambivalent reactions outside its borders: it revived disquietingmemories of attempts by German big business during the two world wars to build an economic empire in Europe in conjunction with the military and the government bureaucracy. But thereare also high hopes that German finance and industry will serve as the engine of reconstruction in eastern Europe, just as it played this role in the postwar unification of western Europe.
Over the last few years, there has been a noticeable increase in studies on the postwar period of Germany, reflecting the crucial importance of these years for an understanding of the developments in the two Germanys. With her study of U. She examines the decisions made by the U.
Military Government regarding German municipal personnel from the first year of the occupation, when all city officials were appointed directly by Military Government of with its explicit approval, through the first postwar municipal elections in and , when democratic self-government was gradually restored. Boehling explores the far-reaching effects of personnel decisions on German political life within the framework of U.
The conclusion she draws is that the early local-level German developments under U. By the time the Berlin Wall collapsed, the cinema of the German Democratic Republic—to the extent it was considered at all—was widely regarded as a footnote to European film history, with little of enduring value. The rapid shift of German elite groups' political loyalties away from Nazism and toward support of the fledgling democracy of the Federal Republic, in spite of the continuity of personnel and professional structures, has surprised many scholars of postwar Germany.
The key, Hayse argues, lies in the peculiar and paradoxical legacy of these groups' evasive selective memory, by which they cast themselves as victims of the Third Reich rather than its erstwhile supporters. The avoidance of responsibility for the crimes and excesses of the Third Reich created a need to demonstrate democratic behavior in the post-war public sphere. Ultimately, this self-imposed pressure, while based on a falsified, selective group memory of the recent past, was more important in the long term than the Allies' stringent social change policies.
Moreover, whereas during the initial phase the East Germans were hoping just for a reform of their existing systems, they were soon disappointed and had to accept the fact that a fusion was out of the question; instead, East German structures were expected to assimilate to those of West Germany which led to the accusation of the latter's "colonization" of East Germany. The restructuring of the education system played a crucial role in the transformation of East Germany; consequently, enormous sums were pumped into East German schools and the training of teachers. This is the first study in any language that closely examines the process re-education and addresses such vital questions as whether the reforms were educationally sound, to what degree they meshed with local circumstances, what measures were taken to fill the vacuum in moral and social values that was left by the discrediting of Marxism-Leninism, and what happened to the notion of "equality", the key principle of a socialist society.
Contrasting the old and the new regime in the East, the author addresses these and many more critical issues. Numerous case studies and substantial interview material richly illustrate the author's arguments. German unification brought fundamental, often traumatic changes for the people in eastern Germany. Women as a group were arguably more deeply affected by the changes than any other, and in one area in particular: that of work, which had far-reaching effects on them and their families' economic situation.
Rachel Alsop critically examines the processes behind women's changing relationship to the labor market in eastern Germany following the collapse of state socialism and the transition to a market economy. By the s women made up virtually half of the East German work force. The collapse of the GDR transformed the field of work, drastically diminishing the general demand for labor. Yet while economic and political restructuring reduced the volume of both male and female employment, it was women who bore the brunt of unemployment.
Louis served and still does as the seat of the Lutheran Church Missouri Synod, a conservative American Lutheran confession, and their local strength led to friction with Germans of other faiths. These Lutherans did not traffic much with the sizable German Catholic population of the city, who often shared their houses of worship and political stances with the Irish.
The small rabbinical German Jewish community remained insular. The Freethinkers, atheists, socialists, et al. In addition, the Germans, while heavily concentrated in a few pockets of north and south St. Louis, were spread across the city proper and into the larger countryside". This situation differed from that of other nineteenth-century immigrant groups, notably the Irish, but also Italians and people of other European backgrounds. The resulting lack of a unified and clearly definable German-American community explains in part why only few Americans, including those of German descent, have any idea when Steuben Day or German-American Day falls, whereas the Irish St.
Patrick's Day is one of America's most popular celebrations, and Columbus Day, named after the Italian explorer, is a federal holiday". Writing about the town of Hustisford, Wisconsin , Jennifer Ludden discusses Mel Grulke, who was born in , with German his first language at home; "Grulke's great-grandparents immigrated to the U.
To this day, relatively unassimilated people of German-speaking heritage can be found in the United States among different Anabaptist groups - the Old Order Amish and most Old Order Mennonites speak Pennsylvania Dutch or Bernese German or Alsatian by a minority of Amish along with High German to various degrees though they are generally fluent in English. The three Amish dialects as well as Hutterite German are still learned by all children of the group, whereas Plautdietsch-speakers tend much more to assimilate.
Another group of relatively unassimilated people of German-speaking heritage can be found in the Amana Colonies in Iowa; according to the website Statistical Atlas, all of the residents of East Amana speak German at home, and only It has been shown that cultural differences between the attitudes towards farming of German Americans, on the one hand, and of British-ancestry Yankees, on the other, lasted into the s and have to some extend lasted into the 21st century; German Americans have tended to see farming in a more family-oriented manner than Yankees.
Germans have contributed to a vast number of areas in American culture and technology. Baron von Steuben , a former Prussian officer, led the reorganization of the U. Army during the War for Independence and helped make the victory against British troops possible. Steinway in German settlers brought the Christmas tree custom and other German Christmas traditions to the United States. The Studebakers built large numbers of wagons used during the Western migration; Studebaker, like the Duesenberg brothers, later became an important early automobile manufacturer.
Carl Schurz , a refugee from the unsuccessful first German democratic revolution of became an influential politician first in the Republican then in the Democratic party, and served as U. Secretary of the Interior. They contributed decisively to the development of U. The influence of German cuisine is seen in the cuisine of the United States throughout the country, especially regarding pastries, meats and sausages, and above all, beer.
Frankfurters or "wieners", originating from Frankfurt am Main and Vienna , respectively , hamburgers , bratwurst , sauerkraut , and strudel are common dishes. German bakers introduced the pretzel , which is popular across the United States. Germans introduced America to lager , the most-produced beer style in the United States, and have been the dominant ethnic group in the beer industry since The oldest extant brewery in the United States is D. Almost half of all current beer sales in the United States can be attributed to German immigrants, Capt.
Louis in There are also major annual events in Chicago's Lincoln Square neighborhood, a traditional a center of the city's German population, in Cincinnati , where its annual Oktoberfest Zinzinnati  is the largest Oktoberfest outside of Germany  and in Milwaukee, which celebrates its German heritage with an annual German Fest. So many German speakers arrived, the area became known as " Deutschtown " and has been revived as such. Skat , the most popular card game in Germany, is also played in areas of the United States with large German American populations, such as Wisconsin and Texas.
The following German international schools are in operation in the United States, serving German citizens, Americans, and other U. German Americans have been influential in almost every field in American society, including science, architecture, business, sports, entertainment, theology, politics, and the military. Many of these individuals were of German Jewish descent or anti-Nazis who fled Nazi oppression.
Eisenhower , Chester W. Many German Americans have played a prominent role in American industry and business, including Henry J. Heinz H. Kraft Kraft Foods Inc. Some, such as Brooklyn Bridge engineer John A. Others, including Albert Einstein , J. There have been three presidents whose fathers were of German descent: Dwight D.
Presidents with maternal German ancestry include Richard Milhous Nixon Nixon's maternal ancestors were Germans who anglicized Melhausen to Milhous  and Barack Obama , whose maternal family's ancestry includes German immigrants from the South German town of Besigheim  and from Bischwiller in the Alsace region that is nowadays part of France; both families came to America around They have a small part of their territories in the European part of the Caucasus. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Pennsylvania German. Main article: Germans in the American Revolution. Main article: History of the Jews in the United States. Further information: Germans in Alabama. Main article: German Texan. See also: Volga Germans and Russian Mennonite. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.
May Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: German American journalism. Main article: German language in the United States. Lateth-century German-American buildings in Manhattan. Frohne on St. Mark's Place in the East Village. For a more comprehensive list, see List of German Americans.
This article may be better presented in list format to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Please help improve this article by converting it into a stand-alone or embedded list. November United States portal Germany portal. Bruce Leslie has written that "German American invisibility in contemporary society and in history is an anomaly deserving attention.
By standard statistical measurement, the Germans were the largest immigrant group. Yet historians have been far more interested in Italian, Irish, Polish, and Eastern European Jewish immigration and culture. Irish bars, Italian restaurants, and Jewish humor abound. German language is rarely studied in high schools or colleges and German restaurants are an endagered culinary species. The blending of so many millions into the American mainstream with barely a trace is one of the major untold stories in American history".
I have already noted Laurie Jablonski's stronger identification with her Polish than with her German ancestry, a fact she attributed to the influence her surname had on how others reacted to her. When I asked about times when the relative influence of one or the other side might be stronger, however, she revealed that political events in Germany and Poland had a lot to do with how she chose to identify herself". A similar story to Laurie's is related in a description by Hinda Winawer-Steiner and Norbert Wetzel of a workshop for family therapists on ethnicity and family therapy.
The therapists were supposed to talk about their ethnicity and how it might influence their work. A discussion of a German-American family revealed that two of the therapists who had identified themselves as Polish-American at the beginning of the workshop were, in fact, half German. It turned out that they were suppressing their German identity because of the negative connotations associated with being German.
The other, after some reflection, said that in a group that was half Jewish, she had been reluctant to acknowledge her German heritage" Winawer-Steiner and Wetzel , ". Hence, German-Americans' diversity has emerged as perhaps the crucial variable accounting for their assimilationist propensities. Otter Tail County, certainly a rural area, had German-American communities that were diverse and small, and these communities succeeded in maintaining crucial ethnic boundaries into the twentieth century.
The persistence of these heterogeneous, lightly populated German-American communities suggest that place of residence was the key factor in the rate of German-American assimilation. Urban orientation may have corroded German-American ethnic boundaries more than diversity did, though the two variables were not unrelated". Cayton: "In the process of participating in the public culture of Ohio, some Germans struggled to keep connections with their birthplaces.
A coherent community was difficult to maintain, however. Proud as they were of "Deutschthum," or the sum of Germanness, it became increasingly vague. Germans were too diverse in terms of religion and politics. Writing about New Orleans , Miller states "During the nineteenth century, the Irish and Germans provided the largest numbers of mmigrants and gave the city its immigrant cast.
The Irish and Germans differed, however, in their ethnic cohesiveness and interactions with the host culture s ". They were widely dispersed throughout the Second and Third Municipalities, and in Carrollton and Lafayette, and they were fragmented by differences in religion, region of origin, and class. The proliferation of German clubs, associations, and institutions bespoke the Germans' numerical significance in the city, but it also attested to their divisions, for such organizations tended to cater to very specific groups rather than bind the various German strands together.
But, overall, Germans were too diverse and divided to dominate the city". In the great waves of late antebellum immigration, the vast majority of Irish immigrants entering New Orleans came from a few select counties in Ireland. They shared a common faith, poverty, and national identity. New Orleans was small enough so that dispersal did not diminish Irish power; in fact, Irish immigrants everywhere shared so many common cultural and class interests that dispersion served to broaden Irish influence on the city's culture".
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