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We should read belighted beauty i. Kurze Fassung a. Delighted for delightful; Shakespeare often uses the active and passive partici- 35 ples indiscriminately. Of this practice I have given many examples. There is 36 no such word as belighted. George Ste- 37 evens William Warburton London: Knapton, London: Dover, His prose translation, with scholarly annotations, sets a high stan- 7 dard for accuracy here, though he simplifies by cutting the double nega- 8 tive. Hans and Johanna Rad- 31 spieler. BB 32 C original edition: C On Wieland"s sources see the Radspielers" edi- tion, p.

BB C40; this is Eckert"s revised edition of C20 — London: Rout- 38 ledge, ; repr. Samuel Johnson and George Steevens 40 Consulted in EAS. Most subsequent translators choose Eidam, 4 which was already becoming archaic in Schwiegersohn became stan- 5 dard by the mid nineteenth century, and it is typical of the tendency to 6 archaism in German Shakespeare translations that we won"t see Schwie- 7 gersohn used in this couplet until the s. Also archaic, from about the 8 mid nineteenth century, is the second-person singular pronoun ihr pos- 9 sessive euer; capitalization varies. The modern familiar form du dein 10 is not used until the s.

And one 13 might have guessed that their versions would have influenced later re- 14 translators. Period 1: s to s: Pre-National! Colour Blindness" 23 24 By the turn of the nineteenth century several writers had produced verse 25 versions for the stage, based on Wieland, without finding much contem- 26 porary favour. Johann Heinrich Voss is renowned for his translations of Homer; 29 his translations of most of Shakespeare"s plays were published in — 30 Jahrhundert, PhD diss. More Fair than Black" 19 1 one which made the final cut.

The sequence of redactions reveals precise- 2 ly what! Such general address is normally implicit in a Shakespearean char- 8 acter"s parting rhyming couplet. Idealising translations therefore! They also rob 11 the couplet of any trace of humour.

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Nationalausgabe, ed. Borcherdt, vol. But Voss"s couplet now shows no trace of race differ- 3 ence; no trace in fact of corporeality. Idealisation is complete. This religiously connoted verb with the 7 root klar clear means, roughly,! But nothing here remains 16 of colour, or of ambivalence.

Voss"s injunction has become a plain declar- 17 ative statement. This version was published in under Voss" 34 name BB C See also the checklist at Marti"s! Shakespeare 40 in Europe" website. Benda"s 7 partial complete works failed to be reprinted: he was not translating in 8 accord with dominant taste or ideology. The way his couplet shifts atten- 9 tion towards Desdemona — and her power to choose — has only one, par- 10 tial parallel among other versions, and that is the only one by a woman 11 Hedwig Schwarz, ; see below.

All these 15 features anticipate translations of the fascist period, and are absent in in- 16 tervening translations. Although Baudissin suppresses colour references, he 19 conveys something of the original couplet"s ambivalence. Moor" might be vaguely Oriental, Arab, or North African; he might 27 even be! To call him so must be morally 31 wrong, because Othello is virtuous; however, by implication he is physi- 32 cally ugly.

Just as important as the wording is the dramaturgy of the cou- 33 plet. The syllogistic structure is yet clearer than in the original. Numerous later editions; none of those consulted alters the wording 39 of the Duke"s couplet, although there are several revisions of Iago"s quayside 40 couplets. This Duke unreservedly de- 4 fends Othello; however, he does so without catching his eye.

The second 5 line has two second-person pronouns. State power speaks to Brabantio, 6 insisting on his duty to recognize kinship with Othello, but without seem- 7 ing to include Othello as a potential interlocutor. Many later re-translations of Othello are essentially redac- 10 tions of it.

It currently circulates in a very cheap 13 Reclam edition, at less than half the price of any other, and in many 14 other editions besides. When Othello was issued in paperback in 15 to tie in with the German release of the film O — an American high-school 16 basketball drama, which may lie behind Zaimoglu and Senkel"s choice of 17 joke for Iago in the quayside scene — it was Baudissin"s text that teenagers 18 were offered. Some recent adaptations of Oth- 19 20 21 22 56 Editions consulted which use Baudissin"s Duke"s couplet, but render Iago"s 23 quayside couplets differently: Schmidt in Ulrici"s edition — , BB 24 C , Vischer [translated in the s], C , Sch cking — 25 , C , Bab and Levy — , C , Meinerts , C An 26 important edition not yet consulted is Hermann Conrad , C; 40th edn 27 His protests cost him his job but he returned as Dean after the 30 war.

Karl Brunner Britisch-Amerikanische Bibliothek, 1. Brunner describes his text as a 34 revision of Baudissin"s, drawing on Conrad"s revision He varied Iago"s 35 jokes, but the Duke"s couplet only in orthography Euern for the commoner 36 Euren. Wolf Graf Baudissin, ed. More Fair than Black" 23 1 ello, or plays which quote from it, counterpose Baudissin"s script and con- 2 temporary dialogue. But a radical break from! Wil- 15 helm Jordan was a liberal nationalist politician, a member of the na- 16 tional assembly.

He is credited with coining the phrase! So here, he reverses the order of the 21 lines in the couplet, destroying its rhetorical effect. But in other respects 22 his translation is radically faithful. This pairing 24 will not be seen again until the s. Jordan was also ahead of his 25 time in being the first translator and for a very long time, the only 26 one to render!

Friedrich Bodenstedt et al. The implication of manliness is also apparent. But in one 16 key respect it was: after him, the question of colour difference, hence eth- 17 nic or race difference, will no longer be suppressed in re-translating these 18 lines. It may not be coincidental that Jordan"s work appears when Germa- 19 ny is on the brink of coming into existence as a European nation-state, 20 hence a political entity within which ethnic and race difference must be 21 significant.

My surmise is that these re-transla- 32 33 62 Shakespeare"s Othello, der Mohr von Venedig. My copy is bound in one unnum- 36 bered volume with Jordan"s translations of King Lear, Romeo and Juliet, and 37 Macbeth, each with its own title page, in the same edition, but all dated This pre-dates any of Jordan"s drama translations recorded in BB.

Franz Dingelstedt et al.

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More Fair than Black" 25 1 tions transport imperialist ideology. In the earlier nineteenth century, at 2 least in well-received translations, Othello"s blackness could not be recon- 3 ciled with the sovereign gesture of recommending him, so it was sup- 4 pressed. Towards the end of the century, for the first time, German cul- 5 ture confronts!

Othello be- 6 comes a text with which to think that encounter. The metaphors used 7 in re-translating the couplet concern a! He contributed 11 twelve other plays to Bodenstedt"s complete works edition, first publish- 12 ed in the s. His Othello was drafted in — 2 and appeared posthu- 13 mously in At the time of the Berlin!

Black" is! Heinrich Spies Berlin: Georg Reim- 33 er, Spies"s foreword vii states that Gildemeister"s first draft of Othello 34 was dated 28 October , and the second draft appears to have been complet- 35 ed not long after. Nachgelassene 40!

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Heinrich Spies. The question is: why 2 do most re-translators overlook it, but re-translators in the imperial peri- 3 od — and sometimes in the following fascistic period — choose to elaborate 4 this metaphor? In the imperial period, it is as if the! Oth- 6 ello"s blackness becomes undeniable — a literary fact which is visible be- 7 cause of imperial-colonial facts. But those facts must be ideologically dis- 8 guised.

Blackness is present but made invisible as a physical attribute, by 9 being represented as rhetorically: the absence of the absence of light. Later to become one of the most prominent academics 12 in Germany, Gundolf was for many years the! George sought to renew German civilization on the 15 basis of elitist, classicist aestheticism. This landmark in German literary historiography still rep- 19 resents the highpoint of German cultural assimilation of the Bard as a na- 20 tionally symbolic! Germanic" writer; and no less a highpoint of German 21 Jewish scholarship conceived and received as German national scholar- 22 ship.

In his translations of Shakespeare"s plays, Gundolf combines con- 23 densed simplicity with delicate poetic suggestiveness. His couplet draws 24 on Bodenstedt hence Schiller and Eschenburg for the first line.

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  7. In the 25 second line, Gundolf"s Duke sounds rather precious. Its associations include the noun Lichtung: a 32 clearing in woodland, a lit space surrounded by darkness — later, a key 33 term in Heidegger"s vocabulary. Neue Ausgabe in sechs B nden, ed. This is a reprint of 40 C 10 vols, — , with Othello in vol.

    The rhetoric of the lines is entirely affir- 8 mative. This Duke, like Baudissin"s, whole-heartedly recommends Othel- 9 lo, although the implicit dramaturgy is again as ambiguous as Shake- 10 speare"s. Only the curious fact that! Period 3: s to s, National-Fascist:! Black to Dark" 20 21 After the First World War, the end of German empire, the loss of German 22 colonies: national humiliation, which the victors reinforce by stationing 23 French colonial troops in the Rhineland.

    They and their children consti- 24 tute the first politically and demographically significant black presence 25 within German territory. A little later, African-American musicians and 26 sportspersons are stars in jazz-age Berlin. The persistence of —icht rhymes might index Gundolf"s influ- 30 ence. But nothing remains in this period of his ethereal tone and echoes 31 of Romanticism and Schillerian Idealism. The force of negation is direct- 32 ed towards a really present, fully visible, physically!

    Max J. Wolff 9 was a distinguished Shakespeare scholar whose translations were publish- 10 ed in huge editions by Insel Verlag and others. They were marketed as re- 11 dactions of Schlegel-Tieck, but were far more radical than this suggests. From now on, all translators will recognise 18 colour as a feature of Othello"s physical appearance, and of his identity, 19 and will present it in terms which reference contemporary, state-sanc- 20 tioned racist discourses — reproducing those discourses, or resisting 21 them, or something in between.

    Unsurprisingly, 24 this is the case in all translations of the Nazi period. In , on the 25 eve of war, Erich Engel directed Othello in his own translation at the 26 Deutsches Theater, Berlin. Engel had directed the original production 27 of Brecht"s Dreigroschenoper in , among other productions by Brecht 28 and other leftist writers.

    Engel"s couplet is 30 a little more subtle than Wolff"s. He retains the rhyme on -icht, but 31 uses Licht light , depoeticizing Gundolf"s fey adjective licht. In the 32 story of this couplet, Engel has a double distinction. Wolff, 38 vol. More Fair than Black" 29 1 mid-century translators Zeynek and Rothe.

    In particular Hans Rothe"s Shakespeare scripts which began to 18 appear in print in , although his Othello appeared only after the 19 war were the focus of controversy. Berlin: Felix Bloch Erben, n. A note on p. Regie: Erich Engel. B hnenbild- 35 er: Caspar Neher. B hnenmusik und Lieder: Erwin Mausz. But in the case of Othello, at least, no such new translations 2 were published. The first was the work of a retired 7 Austrian army general, Theodor von Zeynek, who reputedly translated 37 8 plays between retirement from the army and his death in ;72 several 9 were published in the general book trade in the s and s.

    Von Zeynek"s style is certainly officer-class. In 27 militaristic fashion, it also amplifies a homo-erotic subtext in Shake- 28 speare"s couplet. The catalogue of the 36 Austrian National Library records eleven plays in his translations: Austrian ed- 37 itions published under the aegis of the New York Stifter Library in the s and 60 s; some of these editions also appear in ZVAB and Amazon. In deutsche Sprache bertragen 39 von Theodor v. More Fair than Black" 31 1 stress on masculinity given by Mannesmut, the pronoun er, and the term 2 Glanz radiance, splendour, sparkle, or — in a heroic, military context — 3 glory is countered by Reiz charm, attractiveness — a word which is rath- 4 er out of place in the discourse of heroic, fascistic manliness.

    Certainly, the 11 Shakespeare translations of the period will repay further scrutiny. If, as 12 I suspect, Flatter and Rothe discussed below translated their Othellos 13 during the war, in exile, then with Engel and Zeynek at least five Ger- 14 man re-translations were completed between and , making this 15 after the s the second most intense period of Othello-work in Ger- 16 man history.

    Schwarz"s translation, it seems, was never 29 even taken on by a theatre publisher. Trauerspiel in f nf Aufz gen von William Shakespeare. Her version shares 4 with others of the period a sense that Othello is excluded from the ex- 5 change, although the reason is quite different: like Benda"s Duke, 6 Schwarz"s Duke addresses Brabantio as a father. Period 4: ss: Universal Humanist! His Shakespeare translations appeared in , 16 posthumously; his Othello was completed in , in the last year of his 17 life.

    This may be considered an es- 2 sentially racist choice — an option within Nazi discourse. We will come to 3 Fried shortly: he uses dunkel with fairly evident critical intent. Rothe"s 4 case is more ambiguous. He was a prolific and — as we have seen — con- 5 troversial Shakespeare re-translator, and precisely as a Shakespeare re- 6 translator he was a victim of Nazi persecution. He not only claimed schol- 7 arly authority, but the authority of his own intuition of Shakespeare"s au- 8 thentic intentions, buried behind the chaotic collaborative! His scripts cut 10 and simplify to such an extent that they are almost as much adaptations 11 as re-translations, and they notoriously misconstrue the main sense in pla- 12 ces.

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    But they are eminently playable, and were very widely used on Ger- 13 man stages both before and after the Nazi period, into the late 14 s. As 21 we will see shortly, recent translators see this term as problematic because 22 it combines racist connotations with archaism.

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    Rothe caters 26 to long-standing white public demand in establishing programmatically 27 an Oriental or Maghrebi rather than black African hero. Frank G nther Munich: 40 dtv, : — Setting that aside, 14 his Duke is not actually making the same point here as Shakespeare"s 15 Duke. The emphatic use of Menschen people, humans highlights humanist 20 state ideology. Rothe"s Duke speaks for a state intent on uniting its subjects as 24 commonly human, under a universalist view of what it means to be 25 human. He does not address Brabantio in particular, but seeks to con- 26 struct an all-human community of spectators and auditors.

    He wants us 27 to minimise the significance attached to visible, racial difference. Das dramatische Werk bersetzt 37 von Hans Rothe. More Fair than Black" 35 1 Shakespeare"s, but differently. In its own context, it activates fascistic rac- 2 ist discourse, aiming to oppose it, only to remain caught in a post-fascist, 3 universalist-humanist, normatively white, implicitly suprematist dis- 4 course.

    We will see similar mechanisms at work in recent, intentionally 5 anti-racist re-translations. Few other re-translators have 7 been so willing to take creative translational liberties. A series of others, 8 from the s to the s, established and varied a rather strict rule in 9 the translation of the couplet, which more plainly articulates a post-fas- 10 cist, humanist ideology of race. Richard Flatter and Rudolf Schaller, 11 both returnees from exile, worked in the s on complete plays editions 12 in Austria and the GDR respectively. Schaller"s was the state-sanctioned, 13 communist German Shakespeare.

    Possibly they were collaborating across the ideological divide of 18 the Cold War, but certainly this reflects the prominence of gender — as 19 under the Nazis — and above all, the importance of the humanist ideology 20 which Shakespeare was now being enlisted to help disseminate, just as 21 previously he had helped to disseminate!

    Germanic" ideology. He reverts to the early nineteenth-century rule 27 of suppressing all colour terms, and simplifies the syllogism to the point of 28 banality. Again, this might be be- 24 cause the translators were conferring, but it is more likely that the general 25 effort to balance fidelity with colloquial appropriateness, under the deter- 26 mining ideological conditions of this period, led all translators to approx- 27 imately the same solution. As before, there are no significant distinctions 28 between capitalist and communist German-speaking countries.

    The sec- 29 ond line always ends on Schwiegersohn deploying a syntactical inversion 30 which is not archaic in German, as it is in English , in order to stress both 31 32 87 Othello, der Mohr von Venedig. Reading my first draft, Michael Neill raised the ques- 39 tion of Swiss versions, which should reflect a different political history.

    I have 40 yet to locate any. More Fair than Black" 37 1 gender and the post-fascist, humanistic state"s command to curb racist af- 2 fect and to recognize the marriage and Othello"s kinship. Lauterbach the name of his home 13 town. Lauterbach collaborating with Benita Gleisberg , Othello, der Mohr von 32 Venedig, manually typed script, n. The catalogue of the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek dates this 33 translation to , also listing four other Shakespeare plays translated by Lau- 34 terbach Selbmann , with the same publisher, dated — This is a copy of a typescript including a three-page introduction by the 39 translator.

    In this post-fascist 13 period, racism is to be frowned upon, according to liberal consensus. These translations accordingly foreground Othello"s 23 body as a pleasingly exotic spectacle. Although their rhetoric commends 24 Othello and stresses his kinship with Brabantio, these Dukes objectify 25 him more subtly but no less than those of the fascist period. A committed left-wing poet and naturalized Briton, 30 Fried re-translated most of Shakespeare plays during the s and s.

    Peter Palitzsch. Programme in book format: Othello, ed. Karlheinz Braun et 37 al. Frankfurt: Schauspiel Frankfurt, n. His version places invisible 7 quotation marks around dunkel: the Duke is distancing himself from 8 the racial prejudice implicit in that word. More emphatically anti-racist 9 than others of the period, Fried"s translation posits a pedagogically in- 10 clined Duke, chiding Brabantio for his backward prejudice.

    But this cou- 11 plet is not without ambivalence. Othello as Gold is an exotic-erotic, ob- 12 jectified figure. In this context ist Gold suggests — as 14 does Laube"s Lohn reward or wage and others" variations on Preis 15 prize or price — that Othello relates to the senators as a commodity 16 to its owners: as a slave.

    Fried"s Duke can equally be played as a racist 17 throwback, as a Venetian capitalist,95 or as a moralising anti-racist. These prose versions designed neither for performance, nor for 20 reading for pleasure, show that translators with the authority of critical 21 editors are no less constrained by ideology than script-writers. The first 22 two have remained permanently in print in Reclam"s huge, cheap edi- 23 tions, the first recourse of school and university students. In Dietrich 24 Klose annotated Baudissin"s text with occasional clarifications.

    Dieter Bolte and Hanno Hamblock edited 36 a bilingual Reclam edition in with their prose translation facing 37 38 95 Particular thanks to Balz Engler for this point. They translate! But Klose and Engler use hell as an adjective of 22 bodily appearance, i.

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    Now, hell and dunkel are standard antonyms; ap- 24 plied to skin Haut , standard compound adjectives are hellh utig and 25 dunkelh utig light-skinned, dark-skinned. We have seen dunkel appear 26 in the couplet in the fascist period Engel and again in Rothe"s and 27 Fried"s ambiguously anti-racist versions. The hell of the scholars who 28 are more cautious than Bolte and Hamblock, then, seems to be dunkel"s 29 contrastive proxy. This choice is motivated by the adjective"s useful poly- 30 semy skin-colour is primary, but brightness of light is also suggested , but 31 also by its apparent lack of racial connotations.

    Read beside the! The text is not meant to stand alone [and so] the purpose of the Ger- 39 man wording is different from most translations discussed here. Antiquarian Books. Orders will only be sent once funds have cleared in our bank. EUR 3. Was: Previous price EUR 5. EUR 5. Title: Much Ado About Nothing. Viel Larm um nichts. Binding: Paperback Language: english,german. EUR 1. Title: Macbeth. Lernjahr Item Condition: New. Binding: Paperback Language: german,english. Title: Short Courses. Title: Encuentros 2. Nueva Edicion. Books will be free of page markings. Will be clean, not soiled or stained.

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